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Schufrin, Marija; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Designstudie und Entwicklung von Konzepten zur visuellen Trendanalyse für mobile Umgebungen

2017

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2017

Die immer schneller wachsenden Datenmengen in nahezu allen Bereichen des Lebens führen zu dem verstärkten Bestreben, die darin enthaltenen Informationen zu gewinnen und nützlich einzusetzen. Die menschlichen Kapazitäten im Hinblick auf die kognitive Verarbeitung von Informationen sind jedoch begrenzt. Daher werden Techniken und Methoden entwickelt, um den Menschen bei dieser Aufgabe zu unterstützen. Eine Ausprägung der Informationssuche in Datenmengen ist die analytische Untersuchung der Daten. Dazu gehört unter anderem das Erkennen von Trends und Mustern. Visual Analytics hat das Ziel, den Menschen durch eine Kombination aus Informationsvisualisierungen und automatisierten Analyseverfahren bei diesem Prozess zu unterstützen. Die meiste Forschung auf diesem Gebiet bezieht sich bislang überwiegend auf Computer und Laptops. Durch die rasante Verbreitung von mobilen Geräten in den letzten Jahren entstand die Notwendigkeit, die Methoden und Techniken auch im Hinblick auf den Einsatz auf mobilen Geräten zu untersuchen. Die mobile Umgebung bringt neue Herausforderungen, aber auch Möglichkeiten, mit sich. Am Fraunhofer IGD in Darmstadt wurde eine Software zur visuellen Trendanalyse auf Basis von digitalen Publikationsdatenbanken entwickelt. Ziel ist es, durch die Visualisierung der darin zur Verfügung stehenden Informationen, aufkommende und verschwindende Trends zu erkennen. Diese Software ist allerdings für die Benutzung auf einem Desktop-Computer ausgelegt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Designstudie durchgeführt, um die Designmöglichkeiten zur Umsetzung der Software auf mobilen Geräten zu untersuchen. Dazu wurde ein Modell der Zielgruppe (Entscheidungsträger) erstellt, welches aus drei Eigenschaften besteht. Eine dieser Eigenschaften besteht aus zwei Merkmalen - Bauchgefühl und Verstand - welche als gegensätzliche Aspekte identifiziert wurden, deren Vorteile jedoch jeweils stark vom Kontext abhängen. Gerade bei mobilen Umgebungen hat der sich stets verändernde Kontext einen starken Einfluss auf die Benutzererfahrung. Adaptive Mechanismen mit Bezug auf die mentale Verfassung des Benutzers (z.B. geteilte Aufmerksamkeit) können große Vorteile im Hinblick auf die positive Nutzererfahrung mit sich bringen. Im Rahmen dieser Designstudie wurden drei Designs entwickelt und untersucht, die jeweils das Bauchgefühl, den Verstand oder eine Kombination aus beiden in den Fokus stellen. Die Konzepte wurden prototypisch implementiert und im Rahmen eines kleinen kontrollierten Experiments evaluiert.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Pattan, Sachin; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Search Intention Analysis for Task- and User-Centered Visualization in Big Data Applications

2017

Procedia Computer Science [online], Vol.104 (2017), pp. 539-547

International Conference on Tissue Engineering (ICTE) <2016, Riga, Latvia>

A new approach for classifying users' search intentions is described in this paper. The approach uses the parameters: word frequency, query length and entity matching for distinguishing the user's query into exploratory, targeted and analysis search. The approach focuses mainly on word frequency analysis, where different sources for word frequency data are considered such as the Wortschatz frequency service by the University of Leipzig and the Microsoft Ngram service (now part of the Microsoft Cognitive Services). The model is evaluated with the help of a survey tool and few machine learning techniques. The survey was conducted with more than one hundred users and on evaluating the model with the collected data, the results are satisfactory. In big data applications the search intention analysis can be used to identify the purpose of a performed search, to provide an optimal initially set of visualizations that respects the intended task of the user to work with the result data.

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Ramalwan, Vinod Singh; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Visual Trend Analysis for Instant Analysis in Mobile Environments

2017

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2017

Today's rapidly changing markets challenge enterprises to stay up and react early to latest trends, such as technologies and market players. In the past, big players like AOL, Yahoo suffered significant impact in their own businesses due to changes in the market. Hence, detection of trends is crucial to consider upcoming trends as soon as possible. In particular, small and medium enterprises need an easy and early trend detection system. However, such systems must be aligned with their daily business. Analytical observations create significant impact and often prove to be profitable to businesses. However, current solutions need a huge amount of effort to collect data and perform the analysis. To incorporate such a solution, it is essential to have a system that enables to quickly check an upcoming trend without heavy parameterization. More often, analytical observations prove to be especially beneficial in mobile environments, like traveling, where they save time by performing analysis instantly e.g. on a mobile-phone or a tablet. In the past decade, mobile device development has changed the technology market symbolically. However, still today, desktop devices are preferred over mobile devices for visual analysis where device memory, display size, device speed etc. are the major factors contributing to this choice. In this work, I propose a concept aimed at analyzing visual trends in mobile environments which would assist decision makers and business leaders to perform analysis on demand. The proposed concept not only considers the limitations of mobile devices but also utilizes their special features like gesture interactions. This concept integrates a prospect known as a scenario. Each scenario integrates visual metaphors which altogether complete the profile of a subject. A digital library search about research publications was used to choose the subjects in this case. For e.g. checking interesting topics or analyzing topic leaders of certain research area to estimate a technological trend in terms of their relevance and impact. Within the scope of this work, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) was researched in the context of mobile devices and the supplementary features mobile devices provide in contrast to computers. The already existing techniques and solutions for visual trend analysis were evaluated. A proof-of-concept with a web application for mobile devices was implemented. Finally, the developed mobile web application was evaluated against an existing desktop web application based on same data. This study reveals that the new mobile solution has a significant advantage over the existing desktop solution, and it was preferred by the users. It is concluded that the design, intuitiveness, scenario-based concept of the mobile solution and other complementary features like interactions make it more concrete and goal-oriented.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Steiger, Martin; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Information Visualization and Policy Modeling

2016

Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi (Editor-in-Chief): Big Data: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications : Volume 1. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2016, pp. 139-180

Policy design requires the investigation of various data in several design steps for making the right decisions, validating, or monitoring the political environment. The increasing amount of data is challenging for the stakeholders in this domain. One promising way to access the "big data" is by abstracted visual patterns and pictures, as proposed by information visualization. This chapter introduces the main idea of information visualization in policy modeling. First abstracted steps of policy design will be introduced that enables the identification of information visualization need in the entire policy lifecycle. Thereafter the foundations of information visualization will be introduced based on an established reference model. We aim to amplify the incorporation of information visualization in the entire policy design process. Therefore the aspects of data and human interaction will be introduced too. The foundation leads to description of a conceptual design for social data visualization, whereas the aspect of semantics plays an important role.

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Möckel, Jerome; Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Prozessorientierte Informationsvisualisierung

2016

Darmstadt, Hochschule, Bachelor Thesis, 2016

Ziel der vorliegenden Bachelorarbeit war es, ein Prozessmodell zu entwickeln und dies anschließend zu visualisieren, was Nutzern ein effizienteres und schnelleres Arbeiten durch geeignete Tools ermöglichen soll. Die Erreichung dieses Ziels ist durch mehrere Faktoren bedingt. Zum einen müssen die Anwendungsprozesse erkannt werden, woraufhin sich die Frage stellt, wie man diese Prozesse unterstützen kann. Zum anderen ist es auch wichtig, die Aufgaben zu erfassen, welche der Nutzer zu lösen versucht. Weiterhin spielt es auch eine große Rolle, welche Tools für diese Aufgaben geeignet sind. Eine geeignete Anwendung muss sich also an den Nutzer anpassen, um dessen Einstiegshürden zu minimieren und das effektivere und effizientere Arbeiten zu ermöglichen. Um das Ziel zu erreichen, wurden die Anwendungsprozesse mithilfe von manuellem Process Mining identifiziert. Anhand dieser Daten konnte ein Prozessmodell entwickelt werden, welches daraufhin durch eine Visualisierung abgebildet wurde. Prozessorientierte Adaption ermöglicht das Observieren der Prozesszustände und der Nutzerinteraktionen. Der Nutzer wird dabei auch durch die Auswahl der geeigneten Tools unterstützt. Dieser adaptive Schritt wird durch die Regeln, die dem entwickelten Prozessmodell zugrunde liegen, bewirkt. Den Nachweis der Zielerfüllung soll eine abschließende empirische Vergleichsstudie erbringen.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Ginters, Egils

Best-Practice Piloting Based on an Integrated Social Media Analysis and Visualization for E-Participation Simulation in Cities

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online], Vol.75 (2015), pp. 66-74

International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (VARE) <3, 2015, Monterrey City, Mexico>

E-Participation and the engagement of citizens in politics are on the agenda in many countries. Therefore, a number of project and programs were initiated that aim at finding creative and effective solutions for involving citizens. One intended aspect is the provision of transparency that enables citizens to analyze socio-economical indicators and serves as basement for initial data storing for e-participation scenarios simulation. A beyond going step is to consider citizens' opinions in the policy making process. Unfortunately this will only be possible; if a significant number of citizens know what concrete aspect should be realized. The growth and establishment of social media nowadays allow most people to discuss political ideas and critics virtually and anonymously achieving higher credibility of the data usable for policy making. However, the major barrier is the different topical languages, the representatives' role and weak visualization of the results. This article dealt with a best-practice piloting approach for discussing and realizing innovative solutions with a variety of stakeholders from different domains. The core of this paper is how to deal and manage the different perspective on development process, to aim on designing a common set of requirements and development procedure. The methodology is practically and beneficial applied as social media integration solution in the EC FP7 FUPOL research project.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Tomic, Silvana; Ginters, Egils

Best-practice Piloting of Integrated Social Media Analysis Solution for E-Participation in Cities

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online], Vol.77 (2015), pp. 11-21

International Conference on Tissue Engineering (ICTE) <2015, Lisbon, Portugal>

Goal definitions and developments are challenging in large-scale projects, because of the different expertise and skills of the stakeholders. Development often fails its intended goal because of misunderstandings and unclear definitions and descriptions during the planning phase. The paper describes a novel approach to collecting requirements and defining development plans by provisioning a guideline which informs what has to be done, when and in what form. The User Case Requirement Analysis model was applied in the large-scale European project FUPOL during the development of a Social Media Analysis System. Based on this a successful task-based evaluation could be performed that shows the benefit of the model and the software.

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Pattan, Sachin; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Distributed Search Intention Analysis for User-Centered Visualizations

2015

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2015

In recent years, Web Search Engines (WSEs) are the most used Information Retrieval systems around the world. As the information available increases explosively, it becomes more difficult to fetch the information meeting the preferences. This calls for a deep study of knowledge about the users' preknowledge and intentions and hence is a critical area of research in many organizations. There are many existing implementations of search intention analysis in some famous search engines such as Google, Bing etc. There are also several researches which propose few approaches for search intention analysis. Still there is a lack of techniques for intention mining in the field of semantic visualizations as they are designed to provide the visual adaptations especially for Exploratory queries. Hence, it is critical to identify the exploratory and targeted search queries. Also, the advancements in the technologies of distributed software systems make them to be applicable in all the systems which need to do some sort of distribution of load. The search intention analysis requires the distribution of load to do parallel processing of intention mining. In this thesis, a new approach for classifying the search intention of users' in a distributed set up is described along with a deep study on existing approaches with their comparison. The approach uses the efficient parameters: word frequency, query length and entity matching for differentiating the user query into exploratory, targeted and analysis search queries. As the approach focuses mainly on frequency analysis of the words, the same is done with the help of many sources of information such as Wortschatz frequency service by university of Leipzig and the Microsoft Ngram service. The model is evaluated with the help of a survey tool and few Machine Learning techniques. The survey was conducted with more than hundred users and on evaluating the model with the collected data, the results look satisfactory.

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Yaqub, Kamran; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Distributed Social Media Analysis on Microblog-Services for Policy Modeling

2015

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2015

The increase in number of social media users provides the policy maker facility to benefit from this information communication channel. The policy maker from this feedback channel acquires the opinions of citizens and through this active participation of citizens, they are engaged in policy modeling process. The process starts with an acquisition of information, then storage of information and thereafter providing the information for statistics and visualizations. The use case implemented for the proof of concept is Twitter but the proposed system architecture is flexible enough to acquire the information from different social media channels, store the information after extracting the features and applying conversions, provides the information to visualization framework and incorporates distributed processing techniques. There are many existing systems for visualizations and textual content analysis for social media but none of the existing systems provide the facility to explore the whole discussions. The discussion track window provides the policy maker the most relevant and important information in such a way that can be easily explored in roll up and roll down fashion following the strategy to have an overview of information first and then filtered and detailed information on demand. Following this scheme, first topics in hierarchy are presented in discussion track window. Then posts and comments of post along with the sentiment are presented in order of their importance. The dynamic queries using AND, OR and NOT logical operators along with temporal and linked data information is helpful in this regard to get filtered information. The discussion track window eases the task of policy maker to explore information from different dimensions thus analyzing the opinions of citizens to have better orientation towards policy modeling.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Ginters, Egils; Aizstrauts, Artis; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Explorative Visualization of Impact Analysis for Policy Modeling by Bonding Open Government and Simulation Data

2015

Yamamoto, Sakae (Ed.): Human Interface and the Management of Information. Proceedings Part I : Information and Knowledge Design. Springer International Publishing, 2015. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 9172), pp. 34-45

International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information (HIMI) <2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA>

Problem identification and solution finding are major challenges in policy modeling. Statistical indicator-data build the foundation for most of the required analysis work. In particular finding effective and efficient policies that solve an existing political problem is critical, since the forecast validation of the effectiveness is quite difficult. Simulation technologies can help to identify optimal policies for solutions, but nowadays many of such simulators are standalone technologies. In this paper we introduce a new visualization approach to enable the coupling of statistical indicator data from Open Government Data sources with simulators and especially simulation result data with the goal to provide an enhanced impact analysis for political analysts and decision makers. This allows, amongst others a more intuitive and effective way of solution finding.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Zilke, Jan Ruben; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Fundamental Aspects for E-Government

2015

Information Resources Management Association (IRMA): Standards and Standardization : Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (3 Volumes). IGI Global, 2015, pp. 52-68

The upcoming initiatives using ICT in the government process should strengthen the benefit of e-government in most countries. Since e-government among other e-related terms is a widely (interpreted) term, it is sometimes challenging to understand the objective and goals of an initiative. Therefore, in this chapter, the authors introduce and explain most e-government related terms. Even more, they outline some interesting initiatives and implementations to explain the benefits of using ICT in the government domain. Concrete activities are aligned to the terms to explain their practical use in a better way. The authors conclude with several challenges that arise when thinking of the implementation of e-government services. Overall, this chapter should give a good overall view of e-government and the related issues.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Policy Modeling Methodologies

2015

Information Resources Management Association: Public Affairs and Administration : Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (4 Volumes). Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2015, pp. 512-524

The process to develop sustainable public policies is done by public authorities ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders. ICT is rarely included in most of the today's applied policymaking processes. Other process definitions with a focus on ICT inclusion in policy modeling still exist, but they are not well defined. This chapter gives an overview of the existing policy modeling process types and explains their major foci and how they consider ICT and the practical process in public authorities. Afterwards, based on these descriptions, the general requirements on a new ICT-oriented policy modeling process that allows the inclusion of ICT into a valid and useful process for public authorities is given.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Ginters, Egils; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Semantics Visualization - Definition, Approaches and Challenges

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online], Vol.75 (2015), pp. 75-83

2015 International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (VARE) <3, 2015, Monterrey City, Mexico>

The visualization of the simulation results must be done in conformity with beneficiaries perception and professional domain understanding. It means that right data must be identified before. Semantic technologies provide new ways for accessing data and acquiring knowledge. The underlying structures allow finding information easier, gathering meanings and associations of the data entities and associating the data to users' knowledge. Even though the focus of the research in this area is more to provide ''machine readable'' data, human-centered systems benefit from the technologies too. Especially graphical representations of the semantically structured data play a key-role in today's research. The meaningful relations of data entities and the meaningful and labeled clustering of data in form of semantic concepts enable new ways to visualize data. With these new ways, various challenges are related with deploying semantics visualizations beyond analytical search and simulation. The goal is to give a common understanding of the term semantics as it is used in semantic web. This paper dealt with the general idea of semantics visualization. First a short introduction to semantic formalisms is given followed by a general definition. Subsequently approaches and techniques of existing semantics visualizations are presented, where-as a new classification is introduced to describe the techniques. The article concludes with future challenges in semantics visualization focusing on users, data and tasks.

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Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle

2015

Information Resources Management Association: Public Affairs and Administration : Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (4 Volumes). Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2015, pp. 158-186

The purpose of this chapter is to outline an advanced policy lifecycle, the FUPOL model with its ability to link technical features in the area of policy modeling. The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle is based on 6 stages, which are further divided into 8 main tasks. These main tasks are split up into 19 subtasks to provide a very detailed policy lifecycle structure. The detailed breakdown allows one to link each task to various technical features, such as opinion maps, policy indicator dashboard, knowledge database, and simulation and visualization tools. The chapter further argues that the methodology applied is future proof and has the potential of accommodating new technologies in the future.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Reimond; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Fellner, Dieter W.

Visual Trend Analysis with Digital Libraries

2015

Lindstaedt, Stefanie (Ed.) et al.: i-KNOW 2015 : Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Knowledge Technologies and Data-driven Business. New York: ACM, 2015. (ACM International Conference Proceedings Series 1098), pp. 14:1-14:8

International Conference on Knowledge Management and Data-driven Business (I-KNOW) <15, 2015, Graz, Austria>

The early awareness of new technologies and upcoming trends is essential for making strategic decisions in enterprises and research. Trends may signal that technologies or related topics might be of great interest in the future or obsolete for future directions. The identification of such trends premises analytical skills that can be supported through trend mining and visual analytics. Thus the earliest trends or signals commonly appear in science, the investigation of digital libraries in this context is inevitable. However, digital libraries do not provide sufficient information for analyzing trends. It is necessary to integrate data, extract information from the integrated data and provide effective interactive visual analysis tools. We introduce in this paper a model that investigates all stages from data integration to interactive visualization for identifying trends and analyzing the market situation through our visual trend analysis environment. Our approach improves the visual analysis of trends by investigating the entire transformation steps from raw and structured data to visual representations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Hoppe, David; Nazemi, Mariam

Web-based Evaluation of Information Visualization

2015

Procedia Manufacturing, Vol.3 (2015), pp. 5527-5534

International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) <6, 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA>

Information visualization is strongly related to human perception, human behavior, and in particular human interaction. It is a discipline that focuses on human to enable him gathering insights, knowledge, and solving various and heterogeneous tasks. The human-centered characteristic of information visualization requires valid and proper user studies that improve the system or validate their benefits. New methods, techniques, or approaches of information visualization are commonly evaluated. However, the evaluation is either time and cost consuming or they are made minimum resources that leads to results, which may not be valid. In particular the number of participants is commonly restricted and does not enable a valid assumption about the results. Thus performance measures plays a key role in information visualization, existing web-survey tools are not convenient. We introduce in this paper a new method that enables web-based evaluations of information visualization systems. Our main contribution is the enhancement of web-based survey tools with performance measures. Our approach enables the measurement of task-completion time, correctness of solved tasks, and includes a number of pre- and post-questionnaires.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Retz, Reimond; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Adaptive Visualization of Linked-Data

2014

Bebis, George (Ed.) et al.: Advances in Visual Computing. 10th International Symposium, ISVC 2014 : Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2014. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 8888), pp. 872-883

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <10, 2014, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

Adaptive visualizations reduces the required cognitive effort to comprehend interactive visual pictures and amplify cognition. Although the research on adaptive visualizations grew in the last years, the existing approaches do not consider the transformation pipeline from data to visual representation for a more efficient and effective adaptation. Further todays systems commonly require an initial training by experts from the field and are limited to adaptation based either on user behavior or on data characteristics. A combination of both is not proposed to our knowledge. This paper introduces an enhanced instantiation of our previously proposed model that combines both: involving different influencing factors for and adapting various levels of visual peculiarities, on content, visual layout, visual presentation, and visual interface. Based on data type and users' behavior, our system adapts a set of applicable visualization types. Moreover, retinal variables of each visualization type are adapted to meet individual or canonical requirements on both, data types and users' behavior. Our system does not require an initial expert modeling.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Adaptive Visualization of Social Media Data for Policy Modeling

2014

Bebis, George (Ed.) et al.: Advances in Visual Computing. 10th International Symposium, ISVC 2014 : Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2014. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 8887), pp. 333-344

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <10, 2014, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

The visual analysis of social media data emerged a huge number of interactive visual representations that use different characteristics of the data to enable the process of information acquisition. The social data are used in the domain of policy modeling to gather information about citizens' demands, opinions, and requirements and help to decide about political policies. Although existing systems already provide a huge number of visual analysis tools, the search and exploration paradigm is not really clear. Furthermore, the systems commonly do not provide any kind of human centered adaptation for the different stakeholders involved in the policy making process. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach that investigates the exploration and search paradigm from two different perspectives and enables a visual adaptation to support the exploration and analysis process.

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Klamm, Christopher; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Ausprägungen elektronischer Beteiligung in Industrie- und Entwicklungsländern: Ein anwendungsorientierter Vergleich am Beispiel Deutschland und Kenia

2014

Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2014

Partizipation ist ein etabliertes Element der partizipatorischen Demokratie. Immer wieder werden Mechanismen entwickelt, um Partizipation zu erhöhen und zu festigen. Mit Hilfe der voranschreitenden Entwicklung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien, eröffnen sich neue Möglichkeiten von Partizipationsansätzen. Diese finden auch zunehmend weltweiten Einsatz. Neue partizipatorische Formen verwenden ICT als Mittel zur Unterstützung der Partizipation (E-Partizipation). In welche Bahnen E-Partizipation bereits gelenkt wurde ist Gegenstand dieser Arbeit. Sie setzt sich mit der Ausprägung vorhandener E-Partizipationsformen auseinander und betrachtet dabei anwendungsbezogene Projekte. Das Untersuchungsumfeld wurde dabei auf einen Ländervergleich festgelegt. Es handelt sich um einen Vergleich zwischen Deutschland, als repräsentatives Industrieland und Kenia, als Repräsentant für ein Entwicklungsland. Dafür wird, mit Hilfe einer historischen und anwendungsorientierten Betrachtung der E-Partizipation in den Ländern, ein Kontext aufgestellt. Mit dessen Hilfe werden die E-Partizipationsbestrebungen in Deutschland und Kenia anschließend mittels einer aufgestellten Klassifikation vergleichend gegenübergestellt. Die Analyse zeigt, dass deutsche Projekte vermehrt staatlich (Top-Down) initiiert sind, wo-hingegen in Kenia häufiger eine nicht-staatliche Ausrichtung (Ground-Up) existent ist. Weiterhin ist in kenianischen Projekten die Form "Transparenz durch Dritte" stärker ausgeprägt, in Deutschland ist es hingegen die konsultative Form. Im Bereich des fokussierten Bedürfnisses überwiegt in Deutschland die soziale Bedürfnisbefriedung, während in Kenia auch noch Sicherheitsbedürfnisse bedeutsam sind. Im Bereich der ICT-Form zeigt sich eine ähnliche Verteilung innerhalb der Länder bei den Formen Alert, FAQ und Forum. Partielle Unterschiede sind in den Formen Blog und Bewertung ausgeprägt, starke Differenzen existieren dagegen bei den Formen Chat, Umfrage und Spiel als Partizipationsmittel. Für letztere gilt, dass Chat und Umfrage nur in deutschen und das Spiel nur in kenianischen Projekten verwendet wurden.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Klamm, Christopher; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Comparison of e-Participation Roadmap in Industrial and Developing Countries based on Germany and Kenya

2014

Estevez, Elsa (Ed.) et al.: ICEGOV 2014 : Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance. New York: ACM Press, 2014, pp. 399-402

International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV) <8, 2014, Guimaraes, Portugal>

This paper compares the E-Participation roadmaps of industrial and developing countries, based on Germany and Kenya as representatives. Therefore, the ICT roadmap of each country is de-scribed in a clear shape and with representative E-Participation projects of each country. Based on these projects, the comparison is performed on a categorical level in terms of (1) participation forms, (2) used ICT, and (3) socio-political requirements. After-wards, the results are summarized to determine an overall view on the E-Participation situation in both countries. As a result of the comparison similarities and significant differences will be identified. The results are useful for software developing organizations that want to create ICT governance tools for industrial as well as developing countries and therefore need to consider the characteristics and requirements of both country types.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Zilke, Jan Ruben; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Fundamental Aspects for E-Government

2014

Sonntagbauer, Peter et al.: Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2014, pp. 1-18

The upcoming initiatives using ICT in the government process should strengthen the benefit of E-Government in most countries. Since E-Government among other e-related terms is a widely (interpreted) term, it is sometimes challenging to understand the objective and goals of an initiative. Therefore in this paper we introduce and explain the most E-Government related terms. Even more, we outline some interesting initiatives and implementations to explain the benefits of using ICT in the government domain. So next to the term description, concrete activities will be aligned to the terms to explain the practical use in a better way. We conclude with several challenges that arise when thinking of the implementation of E-Government services. Overall this chapter should give a good overall view about E-Government and the relating issues.

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Ginters, Egils; Aizstrauts, Artis; Baltruks, Mikelis; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Gutierrez, Jorge Martin

Fupol Simulators and Advanced Visualization Framework Integration

2014

Affenzeller, Michael (Ed.) et al.: 26th European Modeling and Simulation Symposium : EMSS 2014. Italy: CAL-TEK S.r.l., 2014, pp. 523-529

European Modeling and Simulation Symposium (EMSS) <26, 2014, Bordeaux, France>

FP7 FUPOL project No.287119 (see www.fupol.eu) aims at a new approach to traditional politics modeling. The FUPOL will be able to automatically collect, analyze and interpret opinions expressed on a large scale from the Internet and social networks. This will enable governments to gain a better understanding of the needs of citizens. Likewise the software will have the capabilities to simulate the effects of policies and laws and to assist governments in the whole policy design process. Basic visualization of the simulation results are supported by the simulators however visualization facilities are limited, therefore for detailed visual analysis of simulation data SemasVis environment is used.

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Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Burkhardt, Dirk

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

2014

Hershey, Pennsylvania : IGI Global, 2014

As governments and policy makers take advantage of information and communication technologies, leaders must understand how to navigate the ever-shifting landscape of modern technologies in order to be most effective in enacting change and leading their constituents. Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling builds on the available literature, research, and recent advances in e-governance to explore advanced methods and applications of digital tools in government. This collection of the latest research in the field presents an essential reference for academics, researchers, and advanced-level students, as well as government leaders, policy makers, and experts in international relations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Steiger, Martin; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Information Visualization and Policy Modeling

2014

Sonntagbauer, Peter et al.: Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2014, pp. 145-215

Policy design requires the investigation of various data in several design steps for making the right decisions, validating, or monitoring the political environment. The increasing amount of data is challenging for the stakeholders in this domain. One promising way to access the "big data" is by abstracted visual patterns and pictures, as proposed by information visualization. This chapter introduces the main idea of information visualization in policy modeling. First abstracted steps of policy design will be introduced that enables the identification of information visualization need in the entire policy lifecycle. Thereafter the foundations of information visualization will be introduced based on an established reference model. We aim to amplify the incorporation of information visualization in the entire policy design process. Therefore the aspects of data and human interaction will be introduced too. The foundation leads to description of a conceptual design for social data visualization, whereas the aspect of semantics plays an important role.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Policy Modeling Methodologies

2014

Sonntagbauer, Peter et al.: Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2014, pp. 48-60

The process to develop sustainable public policies is precisely defined in public authorities to ensure the involvement of all stakeholders and to ensure the creation of an effective policy. The inclusion of ICT in most of the today's applied policy making processes in public authorities is mostly less considered. Indeed, other process definitions with focus on ICT inclusion in policy modeling still exist, but they are mostly not well defined. This chapter gives an overview about the existing policy modeling process types and explains their major focus and how they consider ICT and the practical process in public authorities. Afterwards based on these descriptions the general requirements on a new ICT-oriented policy modeling process that allows the inclusion of ICT into a valid and useful process for public authorities will be given.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Kohlhammer, Jörn

SemaVis: A New Approach for Visualizing Semantic Information

2014

Wahlster, Wolfgang (Ed.) et al.: Towards the Internet of Services: The THESEUS Research Program. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2014. (Cognitive Technologies), pp. 191-202

Information is an indispensable resource today. Access to and interaction with information play more and more a key role, whereas the amount of accessible information increases. Semantic technologies provide new solutions to structure this important property. One promising way to access the complex semantic structures and the huge amount of data is visualization. Today's Semantic Visualization systems offer primarily proprietary solutions for predefined and known users and usage scenarios. The adaptation to other scenarios and users is often cost-and time-consuming. This article presents a novel model for a fully adaptable and adaptive Semantics Visualization framework. Starling with the introduction of a new visualization model, the implementation of this model will be described. The article concludes with selected advantages of the described visualization technology.

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Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle

2014

Sonntagbauer, Peter et al.: Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2014, pp. 61-87

The purpose of this chapter is to outline an advanced policy lifecycle, the FUPOL model with its ability to link technical features in the area of policy modeling. The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle is based on six stages, which are further divided into ten main tasks. These main tasks are split up into eighteen subtasks to provide a very detailed policy lifecycle structure. The detailed breakdown allows to link each task to various technical features, such as opinion maps, policy indicator dashboard, knowledge data base, simulation and visualization tools. It is further argued that the methodology applied is future proof and has the potential of accommodating new technologies in the future.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Parisay, Mohsen; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Correlation Analysis to Explain Open Government Data based on Linked-Open Data for Decision Making

2014

International Journal of Digital Society, Vol.5 (2014), 3-4, pp. 915-923

Public authorities normally consider statistical data about indicators in their decision makings. Such valid kind of data allows an objective observation about indicator developments over time. In case of a significant deviation from the normal indicator level, it is difficult to understand the reasons for upcoming problems. In this article we present an approach that allows an enhanced information gathering through an improved information overview about the depending aspects to such an indicator by considering governmental data-sources that provide also other types of data than just statistics. Even more, our approach integrates a system that allows generating explanations for Open Government Data, especially to specific indicators, based on Linked-Open Data and shows it in graphical form to enable a fast overview gathering. This allows decision-makers to get hints for unexpected reasons of concrete problems that may influence an indicator.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Explanation of Government-Data for Policy Making through Open-Data Inclusion

2014

Shoniregun, Charles A. (Ed.) et al.: International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions : ICITST-2014. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, pp. 84-90

International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST) <9, 2014, London, UK>

Commonly, data used in public authorities are statistical data about certain indicator. Such valid kind of data allows an objective observation about indicator developments over time. In case of a significant deviation from the normal indicator level, it is difficult to understand the reasons for upcoming problems. In our paper we present an approach that allows an enhanced information gathering through an improved information overview about the depending aspects to such an indicator by considering governmental data-sources that provide also other types of data than just statistics. Even more, our approach integrates a system that allows generating explanations for Open Government Data, especially to specific indicators, based on Linked-Open Data. This enables decision-makers to get hints for unexpected reasons of concrete problems that may influence an indicator.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Process Support to Assist Users in Policy Making

2014

Sonntagbauer, Peter et al.: Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2014, pp. 149-162

The policy making process requires the involvement of various stakeholders, who bring in very heterogeneous experiences and skills concerning the policy making domain, as well as experiences of ICT solutions. Current solutions primary designed to provide "one-solution-fits-all", which in most cases fail the needs of all stakeholders. In this paper we introduce a new approach to assist users based on their tasks. Therefore the system observes the interaction of the user and recognizes the current phase of the policy making process and the profile of the user to assist him more sufficiently in solving his task. For this purpose the system automatically enables or disables supporting features such as visualization, tools and supporting techniques.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Encarnacao, Jose Daniel; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visualization Adaptation Based on Environmental Influencing Factors

2014

Kurosu, Masaaki (Ed.): Human-Computer Interaction: Part 1 : Theories, Methods, and Tools. HCI International 2014. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2014. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 8510), pp. 411-422

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <16, 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece>

Working effectively with computer-based devices is challenging, especially under mobile conditions, due to the various environmental influences. In this paper a visualization adaptation approach is described, to support the user under discriminatory environmental conditions. For this purpose, a context model for environmental influencing factors is being defined. Based on this context model, an approach to adapt visualizations in regards of certain environmental influences is being evolved, such as the light intensity, air quality, or heavy vibrations.

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Sonntagbauer, Peter; Rumm, Nikolaus; Kagitcioglu, Hakan; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

GIS, Social Media and Simulation In Integrated ICT Solutions for Urban Futures

2013

Network-Association of European Researchers on Urbanisation in the South (N-AERUS): 14th N-AERUS Conference 2013 : Urban Futures. Multiple visions, paths and constructions?. [cited 22 April 2014] Available from: http://www.n-aerus.net/web/sat/workshops/2013/Enschede_2013.htm#Papers, 2013, 12 p.

N-AERUS Conference <14, 2013, Enschede, The Netherlands>

ICT tools and their methods to support the policy lifecycle in urban planning have drastically changed with the emergence of social media, advanced simulation techniques, open government data, big data, opinion mining, advanced text analytics and visualization. All those components should be combined with GIS. Current ICT solutions supporting e-participation and collaborative urban planning are focused on solving a specific problem. They are not integrated neither on the conceptual nor on the technical level. The conceptual level referring to the policy lifecycle, the technical level to data integration and user interface. This paper describes a new integrated approach to policy design and implementation. It consists of an advanced policy lifecycle and an IT-solution with features supporting all phases of the proposed lifecycle. The concept as well as the technical architecture as implemented in the Future Policy Modelling Project (FUPOL) to achieve such a complete integration with separate applications is outlined.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Interactive Visualizations in the Process of Policy Modeling

2013

Wimmer, Maria A. (Ed.) et al.: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation : Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research of IFIP EGOV and IFIP ePart 2013. Bonn: Köllen, 2013. (GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI) P-221), pp. 104-115

International conferences on Electronic GOVernment (EGOV) <2013, Koblenz, Germany>

The policy making process in public authorities is nowadays usually an offline process. ICT is just very conservatively used, which also limits the inclusion of citizens' opinions. In difference the ICT sector consists of a rapid development in the area of eParticitpation and also in data-storing approaches and visualizations. But today it is hard to assign such new technical approaches to the policy modeling process, because of their non-ICT orientation. In this paper we introduce a new detailed ICT-based policy modeling process and an assignment of some modern ICT technology features. To support decision-makers, the main contribution of this paper is an assignment of useful visualization-types to the technological features and furthermore to the ICT-based policy-making process. Therewith we describe an approach how interactive visualizations can lead to a more effective policy making.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Steiger, Martin; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Statistics Cockpits for Information Gathering in the Policy-Making Process

2013

Bebis, George (Ed.) et al.: Advances in Visual Computing. 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013 : Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2013. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 8034), pp. 86-97

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <9, 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece>

A major step in ICT-driven policy making is information gathering. During this phase, analysts and experts have to deal with a high number of statistical data which they use as a basis to identify problems and find appropriate solutions. This paper introduces a statistical data model to support these analysts and experts. It allows for handling the complexity (i.e. the dimensions) of the data for the visualizations. In particular, it helps to use the same data for two-dimensional, but also multi-dimensional statistics visualizations. Based on this statistic data model we introduce an interactive approach of visual statistics cockpits. This results in highly interactive statistics visualization cockpits that enable both analysts and experts to improve problem assessment and solution finding.

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Zilke, Jan Ruben; Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer); Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Visualisierung und Analyse von politischen Daten unter Verwendung von Linked Open Government Data

2013

Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2013

Die Nutzung des Internets durch den öffentlichen Sektor nimmt immer mehr zu. Im Rahmen von EGovernment werden Bürgern mehr und mehr Dienstleistungen online zur Verfügung gestellt, die bisher einen Besuch beim zuständigen Amt erforderten. Auch, um Bürger stärker in das politische Geschehen einzubeziehen, wird auf das Internet zurückgegriffen. Regierungen publizieren im Netz massenhaft erhobene Daten und ermöglichen so die Analyse der aktuellen politischen Lage. Hier soll Bürgern die Möglichkeit gegeben werden, Auffälligkeiten zu identifizieren, Verbesserungspotenziale zu erkennen und Veränderungsprozesse anzustoßen, also aktiv in die politische Tagesordnung einzugreifen und diese mitzugestalten. Für die Analyse politischer Daten ist es sinnvoll, Visualisierungen als Hilfsmittel einzusetzen. Damit wird eine effizientere Untersuchung der Datenbasis ermöglicht. Derzeit mangelt es allerdings an Visualisierungen, die die Besonderheiten des öffentlichen Sektors berücksichtigen. Das umfasst einerseits die fehlende Nutzung von Wissen, das bereits mit Linked Open Government Data abgebildet wird. Andererseits bleiben Visualisierungen hinter ihren Möglichkeiten zurück was die direkte Förderung von mehr Bürgerbeteiligung anbelangt. Andere Visualisierungen erschweren die Analyse durch den nur halbherzigen Einsatz von Interaktionsmöglichkeiten. Um diesem Mangel entgegenzutreten wird in dieser Arbeit ein Modell zur visuellen Unterstützung von Policy Modeling vorgestellt, das die Charaktereigenschaften von E-Government und den zugehörigen Daten in Form von Linked Open Government Data berücksichtigt. Hier wird auf den Einsatz vielfältiger Interaktionsmöglichkeiten gesetzt, um eine visuelle Analyse möglichst effektiv zu gestalten. Zentraler Bestandteil des Modells ist außerdem die Integration von Partizipationswerkzeugen mit dem Zweck, eine möglichst direkte Gelegenheit zu schaffen, erlangtes Wissen weiterzugeben und Lösungsvorschläge zu diskutieren. Der Aufbau der Arbeit ist wie folgt: Nach einer kurzen Einleitung in die Ziele der Thesis folgt die Vorstellung des Themas E-Government und der zugehörigen Charakteristika. Anschließend wird genauer untersucht, welche Daten im E-Government-Umfeld vorhanden sind und in welcher Form sie zur Verfügung stehen. Das darauf folgende Kapitel stellt vor, wie Visualisierungen bisher von der öffentlichen Hand eingesetzt werden und gibt Ratschläge, wie diese in Zukunft verbessert werden könnten. Diese Empfehlungen werden dann unter Beachtung des E-Government-Kontextes in einem Modell zur visuellen Unterstützung von Policy Modeling formalisiert. Es folgt eine theoretische Evaluierung des Modells anhand des FUPOL-Projektes, bevor die Arbeit mit einem Fazit beendet wird.

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Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa

Visualizing Search Results of Linked Open Data

2013

Hussein, Tim (Ed.) et al.: Semantic Models for Adaptive Interactive Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2013. (Human-Computer Interaction Series), pp. 133-149

Finding accurate information of high quality is still a challenging task particularly with regards to the increasing amount of resources in current information systems. This is especially true if policy decisions that impact humans, economy or environment are based on the demanded information. For improving search result generation and analyzing user queries more and more information retrieval systems utilize Linked Open Data and other semantic knowledge bases. Nevertheless, the semantic information that is used during search result generation mostly remains hidden from the users although it significantly supports users in understanding and assessing search results. The presented approach combines information visualizations with semantic information for offering visual feedback about the reasons the results were retrieved. It visually represents the semantic interpretation and the relation between query terms and search results to offer more transparency in search result generation and allows users to unambiguously assess the relevance of the retrieved resources for their individual search. The approach also supports the common search strategies by providing visual feedback for query refinement and enhancement. Besides the detailed description of the search system, an evaluation of the approach shows that the use of semantic information considerably supports users in assessment and decision-making tasks.

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Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Analytical Semantics Visualization for Discovering Latent Signals in Large Text Collections

2012

Kerren, Andreas (Ed.) et al.: Proceedings of SIGRAD 2012 : Interactive Visual Analysis of Data. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. (Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings 81), pp. 83-86

SIGRAD Conference <11, 2012, Växjö, Sweden>

Considering the increasing pressure of competition and high dynamics of markets, the early identification and specific handling of novel developments and trends becomes more and more important for competitive companies. Today, those signals are encoded in large amounts of textual data like competitors' web sites, news articles, scientific publications or blog entries which are freely available in the web. Processing large amounts of textual data is still a tremendous challenge for current business analysts and strategic decision makers. Although current information systems are able to process that amount of data and provide a wide range of information retrieval tools, it is almost impossible to keep track of each thread or opportunity The presented approach combines semantic search and data mining techniques with interactive visualizations for analyzing and identifying weak signals in large text collections. Beside visual summarization tools, it includes an enhanced trend visualization that supports analysts in identifying latent topic-related relations between competitors and their temporal relevance. It includes a graph-based visualization tool for representing relations identified during semantic analysis. The interaction design allows analysts to verify their retrieved hypothesis by exploring the documents that are responsible for the current view.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa

Dynamic Process Support Based on Users' Behavior

2012

IEEE Education Society: ICL 2012 : 15th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning and 41st International Conference on Engineering Pedagogy. New York: IEEE, Inc., 2012, 6 p.

International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) <15, 2012, Villach, Austria>

Nowadays there is a gap between the possibilities and the massively existing data on the one side and the user as main worker on the other side. In different scenarios e.g. search, exploration, analysis and policy-modeling a user has to deal with massive information, but for this work he usually gets a static designed system. So meanwhile data-driven work-processes are increasing in its complexity the support of the users who are working with these data is limited on basic features. Hence this paper describes a concept for a process-supporting approach, which includes relevant aspects of users' behaviors in support him to successfully finish also complex tasks. This will be achieved by a process-based guidance with an automatic tools selection for every process and activity on the one hand. And on the other hand the consideration of expert-level of a user to a single task and process. This expert-level will be classified during each task and process interaction and allow the automatically selection of optimal tools for a concrete task. In final the user gets for every task an automatically initialized user-interface with useful and required tools.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Steiger, Martin; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa

Interactive Exploration System: A User-Centered Interaction Approach in Semantics Visualizations

2012

Kuijper, Arjan (Ed.) et al.: 2012 International Conference on Cyberworlds. Proceedings : Cyberworlds 2012. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Conference Publishing Services (CPS), 2012, pp. 261-267

International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW) <11, 2012, Darmstadt, Germany>

Nowadays a wide range of input devices are available to users of technical systems. Especially modern alternative interaction devices, which are known from game consoles etc., provide a more natural way of interaction. In parallel to that the research on visualization of large amount of data advances very quickly. This research was also influenced by the semantic web and the idea of storing data in a structured and linked form. The semantically annotated data gains more and more importance in information acquisition processes. Especially the Linked Open Data (LOD) format already experienced a huge growth. However, the user-interfaces of web-applications mostly do not reflect the added value of semantics data. This paper describes the conceptual design and implementation of an Interactive Exploration System that offers a user-centered graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize explorative learning, and the integration of a taxonomy-based approach to enable the use of more natural interaction metaphors, as they are possible with modern devices like WiiMote or Microsoft Kinect. Therefore we introduce a different classification for interaction devices, and current approaches for supporting the added values in semantics visualizations. Furthermore, we describe the concept of our IES, including a strategy to organize and structure today's existing input devices, and a semantics exploration system driven by user-experience. We conclude the paper with a description of the implementation of the IES and an application scenario.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Semantics Visualization for Fostering Search Result Comprehension

2012

Simperl, Elena (Ed.) et al.: The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. Proceedings : ESWC 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2012. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 7295), pp. 633-646

Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC) <9, 2012, Heraklion, Greece>

Current search engines present search results in an ordered list even if semantic technologies are used for analyzing user queries and the document contents. The semantic information that is used during the search result generation mostly remains hidden from the user although it significantly supports users in understanding why search results are considered as relevant for their individual query. The approach presented in this paper utilizes visualization techniques for offering visual feedback about the reasons the results were retrieved. It represents the semantic neighborhood of search results, the relations between results and query terms as well as the relevance of search results and the semantic interpretation of query terms for fostering search result comprehension. It also provides visual feedback for query enhancement. Therefore, not only the search results are visualized but also further information that occurs during the search processing is used to improve the visual presentation and to offer more transparency in search result generation. The results of an evaluation in a real application scenario show that the presented approach considerably supports users in assessment and decision-making tasks and alleviates information seeking in digital semantic knowledge bases.

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Kohlhammer, Jörn; Nazemi, Kawa; Ruppert, Tobias; Burkhardt, Dirk

Toward Visualization in Policy Modeling

2012

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol.32 (2012), 5, pp. 84-89

Graphically Speaking

Information visualization and visual analytics have become widely recognized research fields applied to a variety of domains and data-related challenges. This development's main driver has been the rapidly increasing amount of data that must be dealt with daily. At the same time, citizens, shareholders, and customers expect highly efficient, informed decision-making based on increasingly complex, dynamic, and interdependent data and information. All this applies in many ways to public-policy modeling. As the recent financial crisis has shown, policy making and regulation are highly challenging tasks. The outcomes of policy choices and individual behavior aren't easily predictable in our complex society. Ubiquitous computing, crowd sourcing, and open data, to name just a few examples, are creating masses of data that governments struggle to make sense of for policy modeling. Increasingly, policy makers are perceiving visualization and data analysis as critical to this sense-making process. This article examines the current and future roles of information visualization, semantics visualization, and VA in policy modeling.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Ruppert, Tobias; Nazemi, Kawa

Towards Process-Oriented Information Visualization for Supporting Users

2012

IEEE Education Society: ICL 2012 : 15th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning and 41st International Conference on Engineering Pedagogy. New York: IEEE, Inc., 2012, 8 p.

International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) <15, 2012, Villach, Austria>

Nowadays daily office work consists of dealing with big numbers of data and data sources, and furthermore of working with complex computer programs. In consequence many users have problems to use such programs effective and efficient. In particular beginners have significant problems to use the programs correctly due to complex functionality and interaction options. To avoid this overload of the user, the Information Visualization community has recently developed some approaches that aim to support the users. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited to one special aspect, and sometimes they are just appropriate for one special task. Thus, in this paper we introduce a process-oriented user-supporting approach. It allows selecting adequate supporting techniques in correlation to a performed process and activity to guide the user and help him to solve his task. Furthermore, we show the benefits of designing programs and applications, which implement process definitions for the existing tasks to provide the user with better process orientation. This guides the user through difficult and complex processes.

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Breyer, Matthias; Birkenbusch , Jana; Burkhardt, Dirk; Schwarz, Christopher; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Christ, Oliver

Visualizations Encourage Uncertain Users to High Effectiveness

2012

Ji, Yong Gu (Ed.): Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, 2012. (Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series. Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 14), pp. 8066-8074

International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) <4, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA>

Users have to handle a lot of information in order to fulfill their current task. For achieving an appropriate time and level of quality the users' motivation plays a key role. In this paper we present a user study which aimed to evaluate if the self-rated expertise of the subjects in their computer system skills has an impact on their task completion effectiveness using visualizations. The results reveal that regardless of the self-rated assurance of the users, no significant difference in the effectiveness of task completions using visualizations could be registered. Furthermore the participants indicate in the questionnaire that using visualization their individual satisfaction level had no significant differences when compared to the users' self-assurance levels. This indicates even users feeling not confident in interacting with computer systems they may feel confident in interacting with visualizations. Thus if visualizations are applied for tasks of information search and exploration, the user is encouraged to higher effectiveness.

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Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

A Comprehensive Reference Model for Personalized Recommender Systems

2011

Smith, Michael J. (Ed.) et al.: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Part I : Interacting with Information. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6771), pp. 528-537

Symposium on Human Interface <2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Existing reference models for recommender systems are on an abstract level of detail or do not point out the processes and transitions of recommendation systems. However, this information is relevant for developers to design or improve recommendation systems. Even so, users need some background information of the calculation process to understand the process and accept or configure these systems proper. In this paper we present a comprehensive reference model for recommender systems which conjuncts the recommendation processes on an adequate level of detail. To achieve this, the processes of content-based and collaboration-based systems are merged and extended by the transitions and phases of hybrid systems. Furthermore, the algorithms which can be applied in the phases of the model are examined to identify the data flow between these phases. With our model those information of the recommendation calculation process can be identified, which encourages the traceability and thus the acceptance of recommendations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Praetorius, Alexander; Breyer, Matthias; Kuijper, Arjan

Adapting User Interfaces by Analyzing Data Characteristics for Determining Adequate Visualizations

2011

Kurosu, Masaaki (Ed.): Human Centered Design : Second International Conference: HCD 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6776), pp. 566-575

International Conference on Human Centered Design (HCD) <2, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Today the information visualization takes in an important position, because it is required in nearly every context where large databases have to be visualized. For this challenge new approaches are needed to allow the user an adequate access to these data. Static visualizations are only able to show the data without any support to the users, which is the reason for the accomplished researches to adaptive user-interfaces, in particular for adaptive visualizations. By these approaches the visualizations were adapted to the users' behavior, so that graphical primitives were change to support a user e.g. by highlighting user-specific entities, which seems relevant for a user. This approach is commonly used, but it is limited on changes for just a single visualization. Modern heterogeneous data providing different kinds of aspects, which modern visualizations try to regard, but therefore a user often needs more than a single visualization for making an information retrieval. In this paper we describe a concept for adapting the user-interface by selecting visualizations in dependence to automatically generated data characteristics. So visualizations will be chosen, which are fitting well to the generated characteristics. Finally the user gets an aquatically arranged set of visualizations as initial point of his interaction through the data.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Glaser, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Classifying Interaction Methods to Support Intuitive Interaction Devices for Creating User-Centered-Systems

2011

Stephanidis, Constantine (Ed.): Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part I : Design for All and eInclusion. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6765), pp. 20-29

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Nowadays a wide range of input devices are available to users of technical systems. Especially modern alternative interaction devices, which are known from game consoles etc., provide a more natural way of interaction. But the support in computer programs is currently a big challenge, because a high effort is to invest for developing an application that supports such alternative input devices. For this fact we made a concept for an interaction system, which supports the use of alternative interaction devices. The interaction-system consists as central element a server, which provides a simple access interface for application to support such devices. It is also possible to address an abstract device by its properties and the interaction-system overtakes the converting from a concrete device. For realizing this idea, we also defined a taxonomy for classifying interaction devices by its interaction method and in dependence to the required interaction results, like recognized gestures. Later, by using this system, it is generally possible to develop a user-centered system by integrating this interaction-system, because an adequate integration of alternative interaction devices provides a more natural and easy to understand form of interaction.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa

Facilitate Access to E-Knowledge for Adult People in Rural Areas

2011

Candel Torres, Ignacio (Ed.) et al.: ICERI 2011. Proceedings : 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Valencia: IATED, 2011, pp. 002050-002057

International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (iCERi) <4, 2011, Madrid, Spain>

Today's society especially in the western world is marked by life-long learning, because of an increasing technology development primary in Information Communication Technologies and because of an increasing need of up-to-date experts. In contrast to urban regions, the education in rural areas often is only possible virtually. Therefore, a various number of e-Learning Systems exist, that are oftentimes hard to use especially for less computer experienced users. For providing a facilitated access to e-Knowledge in such e-Learning Systems this paper describes an approach for developing an easy usable and understandable portal that furthermore aims to achieve a positive emotional feeling. These emotional aspects, subsumed in user experience, are a necessary factor if the user should be motivated and supported during his learning process.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intelligent Exploration System - an Approach for User-centered Exploratory Learning

2011

Tzikopoulos, Argiris (Ed.) et al.: RURALeNTER : Lifelong Learning in Rural and Remote Areas. Pallini: Ellinogermaniki Agogi, 2011, pp. 71-83

Workshop of the EDEN Open Classroom Conference <2011, Pallini - Athens, Greece>

The following paper describes the conceptual design of an Intelligent Exploration System (IES) that offers a user-adapted graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize the explorative learning. The paper starts with a short definition of learning by exploring and introduces the Intelligent Tutoring System and Semantic Technologies for developing such an Intelligent Exploration System. The IES itself will be described with a short overview of existing learner or user analysis methods, visualization techniques for exploring knowledge with semantics technology and the explanation of the characteristics of adaptation to offer a more efficient learning environment.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

Interacting with Semantics and Time

2011

Jacko, Julie A. (Ed.): Human-Computer Interaction: Part IV : Users and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6764), pp. 520-529

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <14, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Time appears in many different semantic information systems like historical databases, multimedia systems or social communities as a common attribute. Beside the temporal information, the resources in these domains are categorized in a domain-specific schema and interconnected by semantic relations. Nevertheless, the high potential of these systems is not yet exhausted completely. Even today most of these knowledge systems present timedependent semantic knowledge in textual form, what makes it difficult for the average user to understand temporal structures and dependencies. For bridging this gap between human and computer and for simplifying the exploration of time-dependent semantic knowledge, we developed a new interactive timeline visualization called SemaTime. The new designed temporal navigation concept offers an intuitive way for exploring and filtering time-depended resources. Additionally SemaTime offers navigation and visual filtering methods on the conceptual layer of the domain and is able to depict semantic relations. In this paper we describe the conceptual design of SemaTime and illustrate its application potentials in semantic search environments.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Forster, Jeanette; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

Interacting with Semantics: A User-Centered Visualization Adaptation Based on Semantics Data

2011

Smith, Michael J. (Ed.) et al.: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Part I : Interacting with Information. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6771), pp. 239-248

Symposium on Human Interface <2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Semantically annotated data gain more and more importance in future information acquiring processes. Especially the Linked Open Data (LOD) format has already experienced a great growth. However, the user-interfaces of web-applications mostly do not reflect the added value of semantics data. The following paper describes a new approach of user-centered data-adaptive semantics visualization, which makes use of the advantages of semantics data combined with an adaptive composition of information visualization techniques. It starts with a related work section, where existing LOD systems and information visualization techniques are described. After that, the new approach will bridge the gap between semantically annotated data (LOD) and information visualization and introduces a visualization system that adapts the composition of visualizations based on the underlying data structure. A case study of an example case will conclude this paper.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Kuijper, Arjan

Modeling Users for Adaptive Semantics Visualizations

2011

Stephanidis, Constantine (Ed.): Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part II : Users Diversity. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6766), pp. 88-97

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

The automatic adaptation of information visualization systems to the requirements of users plays a key-role in today's research. Different approaches from both disciplines try to face this phenomenon. The modeling of user is an essential part of a user-centered adaptation of visualization. In this paper we introduce a new approach for modeling users especially for semantic visualization systems. The approach consists of a three dimensional model, where semantic data, user and visualization are set in relation in different abstraction layer.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Wichert, Reiner; Fellner, Dieter W.

Natural Gesture Interaction with Accelerometer-based Devices in Ambient Assisted Environments

2011

Wichert, Reiner (Ed.) et al.: Ambient Assisted Living : 4. AAL-Kongress 2011. Springer Science+Business Media, 2011. (Advanced Technologies and Societal Change), pp. 75-90

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) <4, 2011, Berlin, Germany>

Using modern interaction methods and devices provides a more natural and intuitive interaction. Currently, only mobile phones and game consoles which are supporting such gesture-based interactions have good payment-rates. This comes along, that such devices will bought not only by the traditional technical experienced consumers. The interaction with such devices becomes so easy, that also older people playing or working with them. Especially older people have more handicaps, so for them it is hard to read small text, like they are used as description to buttons on remote controls for televisions. They also become fast overstrained, so that bigger technical systems are no help for them. If it is possible to interact with gestures, all these problems can be avoided. But to allow an intuitive and easy gesture interaction, gestures have to be supported, which are easy to understand. Because of that fact, in this paper we tried to identify intuitive gestures for common interaction scenarios on computer-based systems for uses in ambient assisted environment. In this evaluation, the users should commit their opinion of intuitive gestures for different presented scenarios/tasks. Basing on these results, intuitively useable systems can be developed, so that users are able to communicate with technical systems on more intuitive level with accelerometer-based devices.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Wichert, Reiner; Fellner, Dieter W.

Natürliche Gesteninteraktion mit Beschleunigungssensorbasierten Eingabegeräten in unterstützenden Umgebungen

2011

Verband der Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik (VDE): Ambient Assisted Living : 4. Deutscher AAL-Kongress mit Ausstellung. Demographischer Wandel-Assistenzsysteme aus der Forschung in den Markt [CD-ROM]. Berlin u.a.: VDE-Verl., 2011, 10 pp. ; Paper 5.3

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) <4, 2011, Berlin, Germany>

Die Verwendung von modernen Interaktionsmethoden und Geräten erlaubte eine natürlichere und intuitive Interaktion. Gegenwärtig haben lediglich die Smartphones und Spielekonsolen großen Absatz, welche eine gestenbasierte Interaktion unterstützen. Dies geht einher, dass solche Geräte nicht nur von technisch versierten Konsumenten gekauft werden. Die Interaktion mit solchen Geräten gestaltet sich so einfach, dass oftmals auch ältere Personen mit diesen spielen oder arbeiten. Insbesondere ältere Personen sind häufig gehandicapt, so haben sie oftmals Probleme kleinere Text zu lesen, wie sie häufig auf Fernbedienungen gedruckt sind. Ebenso neigen sie dazu, schnell überfordert zu sein, so dass gerade größere technische Systeme keine Hilfe sind. Wenn die Geräte mit Gesten steuerbar sind, sind die genannten Probleme oftmals vermeidbar. Um aber eine intuitive und einfache Gesteninteraktion zu ermöglichen, müssen entsprechend verständliche und nachvollziehbare Gesten unterstützt werden. Aus diesem Grund versuchen wir in diesem Paper intuitive Gesten für gängige Interaktionsszenarien an computerbasierten Systemen für den Einsatz in unterstützenden Umgebungen zu identifizieren. Im Rahmen der Evaluation sollen die Probanden hierfür ihre bevorzugten Gesten für die verschiedenen Interaktionsszenarien einbringen. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse kann später ein intuitiv bedienbares System, unter Verwendung eines beschleunigungssensorbasierten Geräts, entwickelt werden, mit welchem die Nutzer auf intuitive Weise kommunizieren können.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Frossard, Frédérique; Barajas, Mario; Obermüller, Marion; Moises, Monika; Nazemi, Kawa

RURALeNTER: Capacity Building through ICT in Rural Areas

2011

Candel Torres, Ignacio (Ed.) et al.: ICERI 2011. Proceedings : 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Valencia: IATED, 2011, pp. 001348-001354

International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (iCERi) <4, 2011, Madrid, Spain>

The requirements on today's employees have been changed in the past. Today the western world needs significant more well educated employees, often named as experts. To be attractive for the job market the employees have to stay up-to-date and to improve their skills continuously, so lifelong-learning becomes important for the business carrier. But especially this advanced learning becomes difficult for people in rural regions. The existing strategies like improving skills on adult education centres is not appropriated for the rural population because of e.g. travelling costs. To solve this discriminating circumstance is the main goal of the RURALeNTER project. The project aims to develop a new approach how advanced education can be provided to the rural population by using modern technologies over internet. The effective use of specifically to the requirements of rural population developed internet tools enables even for beginners the possibility to be similar effective as the advanced training that is provided in urban regions in the traditional form. The resulting approach was tested and used amongst others in Spain, Austria and Romania.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Frossard, Frédérique; Barajas, Mario; Obermüller, Marion

RURALeNTER: Capacity Building through ICT in Rural Areas

2011

Tzikopoulos, Argiris (Ed.) et al.: RURALeNTER : Lifelong Learning in Rural and Remote Areas. Pallini: Ellinogermaniki Agogi, 2011, pp. 29-38

Workshop of the EDEN Open Classroom Conference <2011, Pallini - Athens, Greece>

The requirements on today's employees have been changed in the past. Today the western world needs significant more well educated employees, often named as experts. To be attractive for the job market the employees have to stay up-to-date and to improve their skills continuously, so lifelong-learning becomes important for the business carrier. But especially this advanced learning becomes difficult for people in rural regions. The existing strategies like improving skills on adult education centres is not appropriated for the rural population because of e.g. traveling costs. To solve this discriminating circumstance is the main goal of the RURALeNTER project. The project aims to develop a new approach how advanced education can be provided to the rural population by using modern technologies over internet. The effective use of specifically to the requirements of rural population developed internet tools enables even for beginners the possibility to be similar effective as the advanced training that is provided in urban regions in the traditional form. The resulting approach was tested and used amongst others in Spain, Austria and Romania.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Search Intention Analysis for User-Centered Adaptive Visualizations

2011

Stephanidis, Constantine (Ed.): Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part I : Design for All and eInclusion. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6765), pp. 317-326

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Searching information on web turned to a matter of course in the last years. The visualization and filtering of the results of such search queries plays a key-role in different disciplines and is still today under research. In this paper a new approach for classifying the search intention of users' is presented. The approach uses existing and easy parameters for a differentiation between explorative and targeted search. The results of the classification are used for a differentiated presentation based on graphical visualization techniques.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Kuijper, Arjan

SemaZoom: Semantics Exploration by Using a Layer-Based Focus and Context Metaphor

2011

Kurosu, Masaaki (Ed.): Human Centered Design : Second International Conference: HCD 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2011. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 6776), pp. 491-499

International Conference on Human Centered Design (HCD) <2, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

The Semantic Web is a powerful technology for organizing the data in our information based society. The collection and organization of information is an important step for showing important information to interested people. But the usage of such semantic-based data sources depends on effective and efficient information visualizations. Currently different kinds of visualizations in general and visualization metaphors do exist. Many of them are also applied for semantic data source, but often they are designed for semantic web experts and neglecting the normal user and his perception of an easy useable visualization. This kind of user needs less information, but rather a reduced qualitative view on the data. These two aspects of large amount of existing data and one for normal users easy to understand visualization is often not reconcilable. In this paper we create a concept for a visualization to show a bigger set of information to such normal users without overstraining them, because of layer-based data visualization, next to an integration of a Focus and Context metaphor.

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Glaser, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer); Kuijper, Arjan (Betreuer)

System zur benutzerbezogenen Interaktion

2011

Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2011

Moderne Interaktionsgeräte orientieren sich bei der Interaktion zunehmend an der natürlich menschlichen Interaktion, wie beispielsweise über Gesten. Dieser Trend begann 2006 insbesondere durch den Verkaufserfolg der Spielekonsole Wii von Nintendo und dem dazugehörigen gestenbasierten Controller, der WiiMote. Hierbei war es erstmals möglich Spiele komplett über Gesten zu bedienen. Der Vorteil dieser modernen Interaktion ist die einfachere und leicht verständlichere Kommunikation zwischen und Mensch und Maschine. Im Gegensatz zu solchen proprietären Systemen, die mittels speziell aufeinander abgestimmten Hardware und Software arbeiten, sind im PC Bereich gestenbasierte Steuerungen selten verwendet. Der Grund liegt in einer fehlenden zentralen Unterstützung, so dass Anwendungsentwickler solche Geräte für jede Anwendung individuell berücksichtigen müssen. Dies stellt aber einen großen zusätzlichen Aufwand dar, der selten im Rahmen der Softwareentwicklung berücksichtigt wird. Aus diesem Grund gibt es auch nur wenige Umsetzungen von Anwendungen, die alternative Eingabegeräte unterstützen. Zumeist handelt es sich bei solchen Anwendungen um Spezialsoftware, für deren Zweck die Eingabegeräte und Einbindung der Geräte optimiert sind. Die vorliegende Arbeit sieht daher als Ziel die Entwicklung eines Konzepts für eine zentrale Unterstützung moderner alternativer Eingabegeräte. Hierfür muss zusätzlich eine Klassifikation entwickelt werden, die eine Organisation der verschiedenen Eingabegeräte unter Berücksichtigung der Interaktionsmethoden und benötigtem Interaktionsergebnis (z.B. Koordinaten, erkannte Geste) erlaubt und so eine spätere Einbindung in eine Anwendung vereinfacht und fördert. Mittels dieses Konzepts ist es möglich ein System zu entwickeln, das alle Geräte und deren Interaktionsformen organisiert. Ein Entwickler ist damit in der Lage, unter Verwendung der bereitgestellten Schnittstellen, diese Eingabegeräte in seine Anwendung einzubinden und sie als Kommunikationsmittel für den Nutzer bereitstellen. Zur Entwicklung eines solchen Systems werden zunächst theoretische Ansätze aus dem Bereich der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion betrachtet, die als Grundlage für die methodische Anwendung dienen soll. Dies umfasst auch eine Betrachtung aktuell verfügbarer alternativer Eingabegeräte. Ausgehend von den gewonnenen Erkenntnissen werden insbesondere aktuelle Klassifikationskonzepte, sowie Umsetzungen von Interaktionssystemen betrachtet. Die gesammelten Erkenntnisse werden herangezogen, um ein Konzept für ein Interaktionssystem zu entwickelt und deren zugrundeliegenden Organisation der zu unterstützenden Eingabegeräte. Auf Basis dieses Konzeptes folgt abschließend eine Beschreibung der prototypisch technischen Umsetzung, unter der beispielhaften Verwendung der WiiMote.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Fellner, Dieter W.

Approaches for 3D-Visualizations and Knowledge Worlds for Exploratory Learning

2010

Gómez Chova, Luis (Ed.) et al.: International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Proceedings [CD-ROM] : EDULEARN10. Valencia: IATED, 2010, pp. 006427-006437

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN) <2, 2010, Barcelona, Spain>

Graphical knowledge representations open promising perspectives to support the explorative learning on web. 2D-visualization are recently evaluated as gainful knowledge exploration systems, whereas 3D-visualization systems did not find their way into web-based explorative learning. 3D-visualizations and "3D Knowledge Worlds", as virtual environment in context of e-learning, comprise a high degree of authenticity, because the used metaphors are known by the users from the real world. But different challenges like the usage of 3D-Knowledge World without losing the learning context and the focused learning goals are rarely investigated and considered. New technologies provide the opportunity to introduce 3D-visualizations and environments on web to support a web-based explorative learning. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the prospects of 3D-visualization for transferring and adopting knowledge on web. The following paper describes different approaches to use 3D-visualization and Knowledge Worlds for conveying knowledge on web-based systems using web-based contents. The approaches for 3D visualizations are classified into different layout algorithm and the knowledge worlds are classified interaction character.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intelligent Exploration System - an Approach for User-Centered Exploratory Learning

2010

Gómez Chova, Luis (Ed.) et al.: International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Proceedings [CD-ROM] : EDULEARN10. Valencia: IATED, 2010, pp. 006476-006484

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN) <2, 2010, Barcelona, Spain>

The following paper describes the conceptual design of an Intelligent Exploration System (IES) that offers a user-adapted graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize the explorative learning. The paper starts with a short definition of learning by exploring and introduces the Intelligent Tutoring System and Semantic Technologies for developing such an Intelligent Exploration System. The IES itself will be described with a short overview of existing learner or user analysis methods, visualization techniques for exploring knowledge with semantics technology and the explanation of the characteristics of adaptation to offer a more efficient learning environment.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intuitive Semantic-Editing for Regarding Needs of Domain-Experts

2010

Herrington, Jan (Ed.) et al.: ED-Media 2010 : World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications [online]. Chesapeake: AACE, 2010, pp. 860-869

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Ontologies are used to represent knowledge and their semantic information from different topics, to allow users a better way to explore knowledge and find information faster, because of the data-structuring. To achieve a well filled knowledgebase, editors have to be used, to enter new and to edit existing information. But most of the existing ontology-editors are designed for experienced ontology-experts. Experts from other topic fields e.g. physicians are often novices in the area of ontology-creating, they need adequate tools, which hide the complexity of ontology-structures. In the area of e-learning experts are also teachers as well. In this paper we will present a method, how the needs of domain-experts can be regarded and so an editor can designed, which allows an editing and adding of information by users without having experiences of creating ontologies. With such an editor domain-experts are able to commit their expert-knowledge into the ontology.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Semantic Visualization Cockpit: Adaptable Composition of Semantics-Visualization Techniques for Knowledge-Exploration

2010

Auer, Michael (Ed.): ICL 2010 Proceedings [CD-ROM] : International Conference Interactive Computer Aided Learning. Kassel: University Press, 2010, pp. 163-173

International Conference Interactive Computer Aided Learning (ICL) <13, 2010, Hasselt, Belgium>

Semantic-Web and ontology-based information processing systems are established technologies and techniques, in more than only research areas and institutions. Different worldwide projects and enterprise companies identified already the added value of semantic technologies and work on different sub-topics for gathering and conveying knowledge. As the process of gathering and structuring semantic information plays a key role in the most developed applications, the process of transferring and adopting knowledge to and by humans is neglected, although the complex structure of knowledge-design opens many research-questions. The following paper describes a new approach for visualizing semantic information as a composition of different adaptable ontology-visualization techniques. We start with a categorized description of existing ontology visualization techniques and show potential gaps. After that the new approach will be described and its added value to existing systems. A case study within the greatest German program for semantic information processing will show the usage of the system in real scenarios.

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Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Fellner, Dieter W.

SemaSun: Visualization of Semantic Knowledge Based on an Improved Sunburst Visualization Metaphor

2010

Herrington, Jan (Ed.) et al.: ED-Media 2010 : World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications [online]. Chesapeake: AACE, 2010, pp. 911-919

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Ontologies have become an established data model for conceptualizing knowledge entities and describing semantic relationships between them. They are used to model the concepts of specific domains and are widespread in the areas of the semantic web, digital libraries and multimedia database management. To gain the most possible benefit from this data model, it is important to offer adequate visualizations, so that users can easily acquire the knowledge. Most ontology visualization techniques are based on hierarchical or graph-based visualization metaphors. This may result in information-loss, visual clutter, cognitive overload or context-loss. In this paper we describe a new approach of ontology visualization technique called SemaSun that is based on the sunburst visualization metaphor. We improved this metaphor, which is naturally designed for displaying hierarchical data, to the tasks of displaying multiple inheritance and semantic relations. This approach also offers incremental ontology exploring to reduce the cognitive load without losing the informational context.

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Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Towards a Workflow-Based Design of Multimedia Annotation Systems

2010

Herrington, Jan (Ed.) et al.: ED-Media 2010 : World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications [online]. Chesapeake: AACE, 2010, pp. 1224-1233

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Annotation techniques for multimedia contents have found their way into multiple areas of daily use as well as professional fields. A large number of research projects can be assigned to different specific subareas of digital annotation. Nevertheless, the annotation process, bringing out multiple workflows depending on different application scenarios, has not sufficiently been taken into consideration. A consideration of respective processes and workflows requires detailed knowledge about practices of digital multimedia annotation. In order to establish fundamental groundwork towards workflow-related research, this paper presents a comprehensive process model of multimedia annotation which results from a conducted empirical study. Furthermore, we provide a survey of the tasks that have to be accomplished by users and computing devices, tools and algorithms that are used to handle specific tasks, and types of data that are transferred between workflow steps. These aspects are assigned to the identified sub-processes of the model.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Visualization Cockpit: Orchestration of Multiple Visualizations for Knowledge-Exploration

2010

International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning [online], Vol.3 (2010), 4, pp. 26-34

Semantic-Web technologies and ontology-based information processing systems are established techniques, in more than only research areas and institutions. Different worldwide projects and enterprise companies identified already the added value of semantic technologies, so they work on different sub-topics for gathering and conveying knowledge. As the process of gathering and structuring semantic information plays a key role in the most developed applications, the process of transferring and adopting knowledge to and by humans is neglected, although the complex structure of knowledge-design opens many research-questions. The customization of the presentation itself and the interaction techniques with these presentation artifacts is a key question for gainful and effective work with semantic information. The following paper describes a new approach for visualizing semantic information as a composition of different adaptable ontology-visualization techniques. We start with a categorized description of existing ontology visualization techniques and show potential gaps.

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Fritz, Johannes; Burkhardt, Dirk (Betreuer)

Intuitives grafisches Editierwerkzeug in Visualisierungen für komplexe, semantische Daten

2009

Darmstadt, Hochschule, Bachelor Thesis, 2009

Moderne Technologien und Techniken eröffnen stetig neue Möglichkeiten, Informationen im Web zu visualisieren. Dabei spielen immer mehr graphische Visualisierungen, die verbunden mit Modenamen wie etwa Rich Internet Applications (RIA) genutzt werden, eine bedeutende Rolle. Parallel zu dieser Entwicklung im Web, wächst der Bedarf Wissen, zugänglich zu machen und ebenso zu präsentieren. Zu diesem Zweck werden unter anderem Semantik-Visualisierungen eingesetzt, um Kenntnisse und Zusammenhänge in einer Wissensdomäne übersichtlich darzustellen und durch Interaktionstechniken schnell und gezielt abzufragen. Dies hat zur Folge, dass eine immer größere Menge von fachspezifischem Wissen zu Verfügung stehen und aktuell gehalten werden muss. Um die Nachfrage bewältigen zu können, ist das Anreichern des Wissens von sogenannten Domain-Experten unverzichtbar. Fortschrittliche Wissensstrukturen speichern dieses Wissen ab, während Domain-Experten ihr Wissen mit ein bringen und aktualisieren. Die Herausforderung entsteht dadurch, dass Wissen in semantischen und komplexen Strukturen hinterlegt ist, welche sehr spezielle Kenntnisse über den Aufbau einer konzeptionellen Formalisierung eines Wissensbereiches bzw. einer Ontologie zur Strukturierung von Wissen fordern. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Domain-Experten keine Ontologie-Experten sind, ist eine abstrahierte Darstellung notwendig, die die Komplexität der Ontologie verbirgt und aufgrund der großen Datenmengen übersichtlich darstellt. Um Bearbeitungen an den Daten vorzunehmen, ist eine Editierfunktionalität notwendig, die als Grundlage die abstrahierte Darstellung verwendet. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer intuitiven Editier-Komponente in web-basierten graphischen Visualisierungen, welche das direkte Bearbeiten der Ontologiedaten auf begrifflicher Ebene erlaubt. Um ein Verständnis für den Ursprung intuitiver Handlungen in Benutzungsoberflächen zu erhalten, werden zunächst theoretische Grundlagen aus dem Bereich der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion benötigt. Darüber hinaus sollen mit weiteren wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen zu der Thematik der Intuitivität eine Basis vermittelt werden, um etablierte intuitiven Metaphern in modernen Benutzungsoberflächen vorzustellen. Der Vergleich und die Bewertung aktueller Editierungswerkzeuge für semantische Daten nach den hier erstellen Kriterien, soll den Anstoß geben, ein Konzept zu entwickelt, welches die intuitive Bearbeitung der Ontologiedaten ermöglicht. Anschließend erfolgt die Implementierung auf Grundlage des Konzeptes. Eine Beurteilung des Systems im Rahmen der Evaluierung schließt diese Arbeit ab.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Bhatti, Nadeem; Hornung, Christoph

Technology Support for Analyzing User Interactions to Create User-Centered Interactions

2009

HCI International 2009. Proceedings and Posters [DVD-ROM] : With 10 further Associated Conferences. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2009. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS)), LNCS 5614, pp. 3-12

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <5, 2009, San Diego, CA, USA>

Alternative interaction devices become more important in the communication between users and computers. Parallel graphical User Interfaces underlay a continuous development and research. But today does no adequate connection exist between these both aspects. So if a developer wants to provide an alternative access over more intuitive interaction devices, he has to implement this interaction-possibility on his own by regarding the users perception. A better way to avoid this time-consuming development-process is presented in this paper. This method can easy implement by a developer and users get the possibility to interact on intuitive way.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa (Betreuer)

Gestenerkennung zur Unterstützung intuitiver Interaktion an computerbasierten Systemen

2008

Zittau/Görlitz, FH, Diplomarbeit, 2008

Moderne Technologien und Techniken eröffnen stetig neue Möglichkeiten Informationen im Web zu visualisieren. Dabei spielen immer mehr graphische Visualisierungen, die verbunden mit Modenamen wie etwa Rich Internet Applications (RIA) genutzt werden, eine bedeutende Rolle. Parallel zu dieser Veränderung im Web kann der wachsende Einsatz von alternativen Interaktionsgeräten beobachtet werden. Diese Interaktionsgeräte bieten durch die Nutzung vom natürlichen menschlichen Verhalten, wie etwa die Erkennung von Gesten, eine intuitivere Interaktionsmetapher. Der Vorstoß des Spielekonsolen-Herstellers Nintendo mit dem kostengünstigen, gestenbasierten Steuerungsgerät WiiMote verstärkte den Trend zu der Nutzung von alternativen Interaktionsgeräten. Obwohl diese beiden Technologien, zum einen die graphische Visualisierung von Informationen im Web und zum Anderen die Nutzung alternativer Interaktionsgeräte, unabhängig von einander eine rasante Entwicklung erfahren haben, existiert keine adäquate Verbindung zwischen Beiden. Die vorliegende Arbeit sieht daher als Ziel die Entwicklung einer Methode, gestenbasierte Interaktionsgeräte, insbesondere die WiiMote, mit web-basierten graphischen Visualisierungen zu vernetzen. Dazu werden zunächst theoretische Ansätze aus dem Bereich der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion betrachtet, die als Grundlage für die methodische Anwendung dienen soll. Ausgehend von den gewonnenen Erkenntnissen werden insbesondere Gesten als Interaktionsform betrachtet und vorgestellt. Der Vergleich unterschiedlicher Techniken zur Gestenerkennung soll für diesen Zweck die optimale Gestenerkennungsmethode identifizieren. Da die prototypische Umsetzung auf die WiiMote erfolgt, werden auch Merkmale und unterstützte Möglichkeiten dieses speziellen Interaktionsgerätes vorgestellt. Die gesammelten Erkenntnisse werden herangezogen, um eine adäquate Möglichkeit zur Verbindung dieses Gerätes mit grafischen Visualisierungen zu entwerfen. Auf Basis dieses Konzeptes folgt eine Beschreibung der technischen Umsetzung und der damit verbunden Hürden. Eine Beurteilung des Systems im Rahmen der Evaluierung schließt diese Arbeit ab.