GraMMaCAD - Graded Multi-Material CAD

Digital pipeline for graded products

Together with Lithoz, we have succeeded in realizing functional graded materials in ceramic 3D printing with GraMMaCAD. You can learn more about the current developments of GraMMaCAD at formnext 2022 at our partner Lithoz.

In the exhibited components, transitions from porous to dense structures have been printed from aluminum oxide. Lithoz uses the Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM) process for this purpose. The components were printed on the Lithoz multi-material printer CeraFab Multi 2M30.

Pictures: Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM)

Another functional extension of GraMMaCAD is the definition of graded property curves in the High Speed Sintering (HSS) process. In cooperation with the University of Bayreuth, Fraunhofer IPA and voxeljet, components made of thermoplastic pulyurethane (TPU) were produced on the VX200 HSS system. This enables new functional integration and reduces cracking.

Pictures: High Speed Sintering (HSS)


Intuitive and elegant definition of material gradients on CAD Models

Today providing CAD models with locally varying properties is difficult and time-consuming for designers, engineers and 3D printing service providers.

Common practice is either to divide the model into partial models, to which different materials are then assigned, or to carry out the material assignment using images (textures) in a preparatory step for 3D printing. The former generally only allows discrete material transitions, while the latter requires grading to be generated as a variation of the texture information.

The challenge is to easily and quickly generate continuous material gradients following the geometry, as they can be produced with modern multi-material printers.

Methods to define material distribution more easily

With our software, we provide the user intuitive and flexible interaction methods to define material distribution on any CAD geometry, by which he has various options at his disposal:

  • he can use CAD surfaces or auxiliary geometries,
  • auxiliary geometries can insert material gradients into the CAD geometry,
  • combinations of CAD surfaces and auxiliary geometries will also be possible,
  • he can adjust the material transition, i.e., the area over which the material gradient extends can be influenced.

We present a digital technology for the definition of material gradients within virtual products, which allows for interactive setting of grading characteristics to perform functional grading on the CAD model – independently of the CAD system.

Simply add Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) to CAD models for 3D printing

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FGM in High Speed Sintering (HSS)

Use of GraMMaCAD for the definition of graded property curves in the High Speed Sintering process.

FGM in Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM)

Use of GraMMaCAD to define components with graded porous structures in the Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM) process.