An Exploratory Study on Electric Field Sensing
Braun, Andreas (Ed.) et al.: Ambient Intelligence : 13th European Conference, AmI 2017. Springer, 2017. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 10217), pp. 247-262
European Conference on Ambient Intelligence (AmI) <13, 2017, Malaga, Spain>
Electric fields are influenced by the human body and other conducting materials. Capacitive measurement techniques are used in touch-screens, in the automobile industry, and for presence and activity recognition in Ubiquitous Computing. However, a drawback of the capacitive technology is the energy consumption, which is an important aspect for mobile devices. In this paper we explore possible applications of electric field sensing, a purely passive capacitive measurement technique, which can be implemented with an extremely low power consumption. To cover a wide range of applications, we examine five possible use cases in more detail. The results show that the application is feasible both in interior spaces and outdoors. Moreover, due to the low energy consumption, mobile usage is also possible.
Indoor Localization Based on Passive Electric Field Sensing
Braun, Andreas (Ed.) et al.: Ambient Intelligence : 13th European Conference, AmI 2017. Springer, 2017. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 10217), pp. 64-79
European Conference on Ambient Intelligence (AmI) <13, 2017, Malaga, Spain>
The ability to perform accurate indoor positioning opens a wide range of opportunities, including smart home applications and location-based services. Smart floors are a well-established technology to enable marker-free indoor localization within an instrumented environment. Typically, they are based on pressure sensors or varieties of capacitive sensing. These systems, however, are often hard to deploy as mechanical or electrical features are required below the surface. They might also have a limited range or not be compatible with different floor materials. In this paper, we present a novel indoor positioning system using an uncommon form of passive electric field sensing, which detects the change in body electric potential during movement. It is easy to install by deploying a grid of passive wires underneath any non-conductive floor surface. The proposed architecture achieves a high position accuracy and an excellent spatial resolution. In our evaluation, we measure a mean positioning error of only 12.7 cm. The proposed system also combines the advantages of very low power consumption, easy installation, easy maintenance, and the preservation of privacy.
New Approaches for Localization and Activity Sensing in Smart Environments
Wichert, Reiner (Ed.) et al.: Ambient Assisted Living : 9. AAL-Kongress 2016 Frankfurt/M. Springer International Publishing, 2017. (Advanced Technologies and Societal Change), pp. 73-84
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) <9, 2016, Frankfurt, Germany>
Smart environments need to be able to fulfill the wishes of its occupants unobtrusively. To achieve this goal, it has to be guaranteed that the current state environment is perceived at all times. One of the most important aspects is to find the current position of the in- habitants and to perceive how they move in this environment. Numerous technologies enable such supervision. Particularly challenging are marker-free systems that are also privacy-preserving. In this paper, we present two such systems for localizing inhabitants in a Smart Environment using - electrical potential sensing and ultrasonic Doppler sensing. We present methods that infer location and track the user, based on the acquired sensor data. Finally, we discuss the advantages and challenges of these sensing technologies and provide an overview of future research directions.
Activity Recognition based on Electric Potential Sensing
Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2015
Electric fields are influenced by the human body and other conducting materials. This property can be used to detect presence of human bodies. For the detection of presence and activity recognition, mostly capacitive measurement techniques are used. Despite the fact that capacitive sensing is an fairly old technology, since it has been around since the 1920's, it is still a hot topic of ongoing research works. Today, capacitive measurement techniques are used in touch-screens, in the automobile industry and many other fields of Ubiquitous Computing. But a drawback of the capacitive technology is the energy consumption, which is an important aspect of mobile devices. That is why, in this thesis, i investigate the potential of electric potential sensing (EPS), a purely passive capacitive measurement technique, which can be implemented with an extremely low power consumption. First, the most commonly used capacitive measurement techniques will be analyzed and how they work. This is done to understand the pros and cons of electric potential sensing compared to other technologies. After analyzing electric potential sensing and related capacitive measurement techniques, we will have a closer look at some possible areas of application of electric potential sensing in an explorative studie. Hence, multiple experiments, involving electric potential sensing in various environmental settings for different use-case scenarios, will be conducted. This is done to evaluate the best use-case for this technology. Then, after selecting the most suitable use-case for activity recognition with EPS, two sensor systems are developed, discussed and evaluated. At the end, the benefits and limitations of EPS will be concluded with regards to capacitive sensing.
Context-Based Document Management in Smart Living Environments
Streitz, Norbert (Ed.) et al.: Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions : DAPI 2015. Springer International Publishing, 2015. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 9189), pp. 382-394
International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions (DAPI) <3, 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA>
Nowadays an increasingly wide variety of multimedia devices can be networked together in ever-growing smart environments. Although these networks, thanks to mobile technology and Wi-Fi, are almost ubiquitous by now, the players therein are still working largely distinct from one another. To simply play a file on the playback device A, which is originally housed on device B, is therefore a complicated task, despite the theoretical possibility provided by existing networking. Especially playing and viewing files on multimedia devices under various circumstances and limited reproduction capabilities is a non-trivial problem. Current solutions from industry still put little interoperable approaches in proprietary systems. Individual multimedia devices of the same manufacturer can be combined intelligently, but with respect to the usability the system scales poorly, the (also physical) distribution increases the difficulty of access to the functions and control is largely independent of the user's context. In this work, a solution is developed, which focuses in particular on the context-based playback of files: sending video, music, image and text files to output devices with different display options, as well as the distribution of these multimedia files between devices. Activities are centered on a mobile device for visualizing the spatial distribution of all devices, including the user's position and the intuitive movement of files of various types between them.
Ambient Gesture-Recognizing Surfaces with Visual Feedback
Streitz, Norbert (Ed.) et al.: Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions : DAPI 2014. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer, 2014. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 8530), pp. 97-108
International Conference on Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions (DAPI) <2, 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece>
In recent years, gesture-based interaction gained increasing interest in Ambient Intelligence. Especially the success of camera-based gesture recognition systems shows that a great variety of applications can benefit significantly from natural and intuitive interaction paradigms. Besides camera-based systems, proximity-sensing surfaces are especially suitable as an input modality for intelligent environments. They can be installed ubiquitously under any kind of non-conductive surface, such as a table. However, interaction barriers and the types of supported gestures are often not apparent to the user. In order to solve this problem, we investigate an approach which combines a semi-transparent capacitive proximity-sensing surface with an LED array. The LED array is used to indicate possible gestural movements and provide visual feedback on the current interaction status. A user study shows that our approach can enhance the user experience, especially for inexperienced users.
Capacitive Near-Field Communication for Ubiquitous Interaction and Perception
ACM SIGCHI: UbiComp' 14 : Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. New York: ACM Press, 2014, pp. 231-242
International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) <16, 2014, Seattle, WA, USA>
Smart objects within instrumented environments offer an always available and intuitive way of interacting with a system. Connecting these objects to other objects in range or even to smartphones and computers, enables substantially innovative interaction and sensing approaches. In this paper, we investigate the concept of Capacitive Near-Field Communication to enable ubiquitous interaction with everyday objects in a short-range spatial context. Our central contribution is a generic framework describing and evaluating this communication method in Ubiquitous Computing. We prove the relevance of our approach by an open-source implementation of a low-cost object tag and a transceiver offering a high-quality communication link at typical distances up to 15 cm. Moreover, we present three case studies considering tangible interaction for the visually impaired, natural interaction with everyday objects, and sleeping behavior analysis.
Kontextbasiertes Dokumentenmanagement in intelligenten Wohnumgebungen
Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2012
Heutzutage werden vermehrt verschiedenste Multimediageräte miteinander in immer weiter wachsenden intelligenten Umgebungen vernetzt. Obwohl diese Netze heutzutage Dank mobiler Technik und WLAN fast omnipräsent sind, arbeiten die darin enthaltenen Abspielgeräte immer noch weitgehend distinkt voneinander. Das einfache Abspielen einer Datei auf dem Wiedergabegerät A, die ursprünglich auf Gerät B beherbergt wird, ist daher, trotz der theoretisch vorhandenen Möglichkeit durch die Vernetzung, eine komplizierte Aufgabe geworden. Besonders das Abspielen und Anzeigen von Dateien auf Multimediageräten mit verschiedenen, unter Umständen begrenzten Wiedergabefähigkeiten ist ein nicht triviales Problem. Aktuelle Lösungen aus der Industrie setzen hier momentan noch auf wenig interoperable Ansätze in proprietären Systemen. Einzelne Multimediageräte gleicher Hersteller lassen sich so zwar intelligent verbinden, gerade mit Hinsicht auf die Benutzbarkeit skaliert das System jedoch schlecht, die (auch physikalische) Verteilung erhöht die Schwierigkeit des Zugangs zu den Funktionen und die Steuerung ist weitgehend unabhängig vom Kontext des Benutzers. In dieser Arbeit wird daher eine Lösung entwickelt, deren Fokus insbesondere auf dem kontextbasierten Abspielen von Dateien liegt. Genauer auf dem Wiedergeben von Video-, Musik-, Bild- sowie Textdateien auf Ausgabegeräten mit unterschiedlichen Darstellungsmöglichkeiten, sowie der Verteilung dieser Multimediadateien zwischen den Geräten. Im Zentrum steht hierbei ein mobiles Gerät zur Visualisierung der räumlichen Verteilung aller Geräte unter Einbeziehung der Position des Benutzers und der intuitiven Verschiebung von Dateien verschiedener Typen zwischen diesen.