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Butt, Moazzam; Alkhatib, Wael

Robust 2D Face Recognition Under Different Illuminations Using Binarized Partial Face Features: Towards Protecting ID Documents


Computational Forensics

International Workshop on Computational Forensics (IWCF) <5, 2012, Tsukuba, Japan>

Biometric recognition techniques have been widely employed innumerous applications, such as access control, identity check etc. In this paper we propose a method for protecting personal identity documents against forgery by using 2D face image on the ID document. The main components of this method includes detection of the face image from the document, extracting features from partial face images and converting the extracted features to binary feature vectors using Local Gradient Increasing Pattern (LGIP) approach. The binary feature vectors are concatenated to form a binary template which can been coded and stored on the ID document in the form of a 2D bar code. This 2Dbar code will be used to authenticate the ownership of the ID document. The face recognition method is evaluated using FRGC and FERET databases. The results show that this method can efficiently authenticate an ID document on the basis of the face image and the method can also be used to retrieve a subject from a database of images. The method is proved to be robust even if an ID document is scanned under different illuminations conditions. A report on document authentication where the face image is damaged is also presented.

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Butt, Moazzam; Damer, Naser

Helper Data Scheme for 2D Cancelable Face Recognition Using Bloom Filters


IWSSIP 2014. Proceedings

International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing (IWSSIP) <21, 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia>

Biometrics provide a source of automated recognition of individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. As per Directive 95/46/EC, biometric data is considered to be personal data. And according to article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, personal data needs to be privacy preserved. Biometric template protection mechanisms provide a privacy preserved biometric authentication. Such mechanisms assist irreversibility, revocability and unlinkability of biometric templates. Recently, a bloom filter based approach was proposed to generate irreversible iris template. In this paper, a helper data scheme for 2D cancelable face verification using bloom filters is proposed. The positions of most representative features (stable features) are used as helper data, which helps in the face recognition. The features used are extracted using Local Binary Linear Discriminant Analysis. The effect of stable features on recognition performance under scenarios of with and without using bloom filters is investigated. In addition, recognition performance after compressing multiple features into a single bloom filter is presented. The results are experimentally proved on two benchmark databases namely LFW and ORL datasets.

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Butt, Moazzam; Damer, Naser; Rathgeb, Christian

Privacy Preserved Duplicate Check using Multi-biometric Fusion



International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION) <17, 2014, Salamanca, Spain>

Automated recognition of individuals can be performed using biometrics without any requirement of explicit knowledge of a PIN or a password. On the one side biometrics has given convenience to citizens as they do not need to memorize a bunch of passwords, but on the other side intra (inter) class variations within (between) biometric features makes biometric authentications untrustworthy. Therefore, decisions based on biometric authentications are made more reliable by using several biometric authentications performed on single or multiple biometric modalities (i.e. multi-biometric fusion). This paper describes a method to identify if a person tries to re-enrol him/herself in a database, when he/she is already enrolled. This is referred to as duplicate check. In this work, duplicate check is performed using two modalities: face and iris. The templates used during the duplicate check are compliant to the ISO/IEC 24745 - Biometric information protection. Such templates are known as protected biometric templates. The protected biometric templates used in this work are generated using the recently published irreversible transformation based on Bloom filters. Scores are calculated from face and iris Bloom filters based templates by comparison with their respective enrolment templates using the normalized Hamming distance. As a decision of the duplicate check, these scores from both modalities are fused with appropriate weighting factors in order to get improved performance compared to using single individual modalities. The presented scheme is experimentally validated using two public benchmark databases namely the LFW and the CASIA-Iris-Thousand databases for face and iris respectively.

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Butt, Moazzam; Henniger, Olaf; Nouak, Alexander; Kuijper, Arjan

Privacy Protection of Biometric Templates


HCI International 2014 - Posters' Extended Abstracts. Proceedings Part I

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <16, 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece>

Although many biometric characteristics are not secrets, biometric reference data (also known as biometric templates) need to be stored securely and to be protected against unauthorized use. For this purpose, biometric template protection techniques have been developed that do not only prevent privacy leakage and provide confidentiality of the stored biometric templates, but address also problems like identity theft and cross-matching of biometric templates stored in different systems. This paper describes the security and privacy risks associated with storing biometric data and highlights the necessity of using biometric template protection as a potential remedy to these risks. Privacy considerations are discussed with respect to using fingerprint verification for access control to a public outdoor swimming pool.

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Butt, Moazzam; Marti, Sandra; Nouak, Alexander; Köplin, Jörg; Raghavendra, R.; Li, Guoqiang

Towards e-Passport Duplicate Enrolment Check in the European Union


2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference

European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC) <4, 2013, Uppsala, Sweden>

Automated border control gates are now being more and more deployed at airports to smooth border crossings with reduced man power and more convenience to the passenger. In order to use these new gates the traveler is required to present an electronic passport (e-Passport or biometric passport). Lots of efforts have been undertaken to improve the security of the infrastructure at borders or by adding various security features to the passport. However, the weakest point in the passport issuance process is the enrolment step for passport applicant including the breeder documents authenticity and the duplicate enrolment check. The goal of duplicate enrolment check is to prevent the issuance of duplicate illegal passports containing possibly fake identities. A solution to this problem needs to be flexible and precise if the solution is meant for large-scale deployments and eventually standardization. This paper describes how a duplicate enrolment check can be realized securely between European Union member states using distributed databases of alphanumeric data and multiple biometric modalities.