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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

Analyzing the Information Search Behavior and Intentions in Visual Information Systems

2017

Journal of Computer Science Technology Updates

Visual information search systems support different search approaches such as targeted, exploratory or analytical search. Those visual systems deal with the challenge of composing optimal initial result visualization sets that face the search intention and respond to the search behavior of users. The diversity of these kinds of search tasks require different sets of visual layouts and functionalities, e.g. to filter, thrill-down or even analyze concrete data properties. This paper describes a new approach to calculate the probability towards the three mentioned search intentions, derived from users' behavior. The implementation is realized as a web-service, which is included in a visual environment that is designed to enable various search strategies based on heterogeneous data sources. In fact, based on an entered search query our developed search intention analysis web-service calculates the most probable search task, and our visualization system initially shows the optimal result set of visualizations to solve the task. The main contribution of this paper is a probability-based approach to derive the users' search intentions based on the search behavior enhanced by the application to a visual system.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Pattan, Sachin; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Search Intention Analysis for Task- and User-Centered Visualization in Big Data Applications

2017

Procedia Computer Science [online]

International Conference on Tissue Engineering (ICTE) <2016, Riga, Latvia>

A new approach for classifying users' search intentions is described in this paper. The approach uses the parameters: word frequency, query length and entity matching for distinguishing the user's query into exploratory, targeted and analysis search. The approach focuses mainly on word frequency analysis, where different sources for word frequency data are considered such as the Wortschatz frequency service by the University of Leipzig and the Microsoft Ngram service (now part of the Microsoft Cognitive Services). The model is evaluated with the help of a survey tool and few machine learning techniques. The survey was conducted with more than one hundred users and on evaluating the model with the collected data, the results are satisfactory. In big data applications the search intention analysis can be used to identify the purpose of a performed search, to provide an optimal initially set of visualizations that respects the intended task of the user to work with the result data.

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Nazemi, Kawa

Adaptive Semantics Visualization

2016

Springer International Publishing

Studies in Computational Intelligence

Zugl.: Darmstadt, TU, Diss., 2014

This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human's behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire "SemaVis" system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

978-3-319-30815-9

978-3-319-30816-6

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Nazemi, Kawa; Steiger, Martin; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Information Visualization and Policy Modeling

2016

Big Data: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Policy design requires the investigation of various data in several design steps for making the right decisions, validating, or monitoring the political environment. The increasing amount of data is challenging for the stakeholders in this domain. One promising way to access the "big data" is by abstracted visual patterns and pictures, as proposed by information visualization. This chapter introduces the main idea of information visualization in policy modeling. First abstracted steps of policy design will be introduced that enables the identification of information visualization need in the entire policy lifecycle. Thereafter the foundations of information visualization will be introduced based on an established reference model. We aim to amplify the incorporation of information visualization in the entire policy design process. Therefore the aspects of data and human interaction will be introduced too. The foundation leads to description of a conceptual design for social data visualization, whereas the aspect of semantics plays an important role.

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Retz, Reimond; Kuijper, Arjan [Betreuer]; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Assisted Visual Data Exploration for Discovering Information in Digital Libraries

2015

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2015

Human access to data plays an increasing role, due to the existing and increasing amount of data. Different disciplines in computer science face this challenge with a variety of approaches, techniques and systems. One promising way is the visual access to the increasing amount of data. Information visualization and visual analytics technologies enable the process of visual exploration. The advantages of visual exploration are that users can discover new and unknown areas and topics in a certain domain. Today's visualization technologies have various limitations that restrict a real access to huge amount of data for searching, analyzing and exploration purposes. The main limitation is the fact that there exists no approach for the entire process of data transformation with data integration, information extraction and visualization for accessing huge amount of data. Most of the systems use either just one dataset, do not use automatic information extraction for enriching data or make no use of interactive visualization methods. A coherent process for integrating data, extracting information and visualizing the information as proposed for visual analytics is missing for real data and heterogeneous data sources. We propose in this thesis such a coherent model for data from different sources. Our model enhances existing approaches by integrating the entire data transformation process for information visualization to support the exploration process. For this, we use ground-truth data from the DBLP digial library as foundation and integrate data from a variety of resources, such as IEEE Xplore or Springer Link. Our main goal is to make use of the surpluses of the different technologies, such as information visualization, visual analytics, data integration and mining, and models of exploratory search to provide a coherent approach that supports the user in the entire exploration and knowledge acquisition process. We propose in this thesis an approach, that makes use of a reference model of interactive information visualization and enhances it with data integration, text and data mining, and assisted search approaches. Further, we implement our model with real world data and enable a proof of feasibility of the entire proposed approach.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Ginters, Egils

Best-Practice Piloting Based on an Integrated Social Media Analysis and Visualization for E-Participation Simulation in Cities

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online]

International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (VARE) <3, 2015, Monterrey City, Mexico>

E-Participation and the engagement of citizens in politics are on the agenda in many countries. Therefore, a number of project and programs were initiated that aim at finding creative and effective solutions for involving citizens. One intended aspect is the provision of transparency that enables citizens to analyze socio-economical indicators and serves as basement for initial data storing for e-participation scenarios simulation. A beyond going step is to consider citizens' opinions in the policy making process. Unfortunately this will only be possible; if a significant number of citizens know what concrete aspect should be realized. The growth and establishment of social media nowadays allow most people to discuss political ideas and critics virtually and anonymously achieving higher credibility of the data usable for policy making. However, the major barrier is the different topical languages, the representatives' role and weak visualization of the results. This article dealt with a best-practice piloting approach for discussing and realizing innovative solutions with a variety of stakeholders from different domains. The core of this paper is how to deal and manage the different perspective on development process, to aim on designing a common set of requirements and development procedure. The methodology is practically and beneficial applied as social media integration solution in the EC FP7 FUPOL research project.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Tomic, Silvana; Ginters, Egils

Best-practice Piloting of Integrated Social Media Analysis Solution for E-Participation in Cities

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online]

International Conference on Tissue Engineering (ICTE) <2015, Lisbon, Portugal>

Goal definitions and developments are challenging in large-scale projects, because of the different expertise and skills of the stakeholders. Development often fails its intended goal because of misunderstandings and unclear definitions and descriptions during the planning phase. The paper describes a novel approach to collecting requirements and defining development plans by provisioning a guideline which informs what has to be done, when and in what form. The User Case Requirement Analysis model was applied in the large-scale European project FUPOL during the development of a Social Media Analysis System. Based on this a successful task-based evaluation could be performed that shows the benefit of the model and the software.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Ginters, Egils; Aizstrauts, Artis; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Explorative Visualization of Impact Analysis for Policy Modeling by Bonding Open Government and Simulation Data

2015

Human Interface and the Management of Information. Proceedings Part I

International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information (HIMI) <2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA>

Problem identification and solution finding are major challenges in policy modeling. Statistical indicator-data build the foundation for most of the required analysis work. In particular finding effective and efficient policies that solve an existing political problem is critical, since the forecast validation of the effectiveness is quite difficult. Simulation technologies can help to identify optimal policies for solutions, but nowadays many of such simulators are standalone technologies. In this paper we introduce a new visualization approach to enable the coupling of statistical indicator data from Open Government Data sources with simulators and especially simulation result data with the goal to provide an enhanced impact analysis for political analysts and decision makers. This allows, amongst others a more intuitive and effective way of solution finding.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Zilke, Jan Ruben; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Fundamental Aspects for E-Government

2015

Standards and Standardization

The upcoming initiatives using ICT in the government process should strengthen the benefit of e-government in most countries. Since e-government among other e-related terms is a widely (interpreted) term, it is sometimes challenging to understand the objective and goals of an initiative. Therefore, in this chapter, the authors introduce and explain most e-government related terms. Even more, they outline some interesting initiatives and implementations to explain the benefits of using ICT in the government domain. Concrete activities are aligned to the terms to explain their practical use in a better way. The authors conclude with several challenges that arise when thinking of the implementation of e-government services. Overall, this chapter should give a good overall view of e-government and the related issues.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Policy Modeling Methodologies

2015

Public Affairs and Administration

The process to develop sustainable public policies is done by public authorities ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders. ICT is rarely included in most of the today's applied policymaking processes. Other process definitions with a focus on ICT inclusion in policy modeling still exist, but they are not well defined. This chapter gives an overview of the existing policy modeling process types and explains their major foci and how they consider ICT and the practical process in public authorities. Afterwards, based on these descriptions, the general requirements on a new ICT-oriented policy modeling process that allows the inclusion of ICT into a valid and useful process for public authorities is given.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Ginters, Egils; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Semantics Visualization - Definition, Approaches and Challenges

2015

Procedia Computer Science [online]

2015 International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (VARE) <3, 2015, Monterrey City, Mexico>

The visualization of the simulation results must be done in conformity with beneficiaries perception and professional domain understanding. It means that right data must be identified before. Semantic technologies provide new ways for accessing data and acquiring knowledge. The underlying structures allow finding information easier, gathering meanings and associations of the data entities and associating the data to users' knowledge. Even though the focus of the research in this area is more to provide ''machine readable'' data, human-centered systems benefit from the technologies too. Especially graphical representations of the semantically structured data play a key-role in today's research. The meaningful relations of data entities and the meaningful and labeled clustering of data in form of semantic concepts enable new ways to visualize data. With these new ways, various challenges are related with deploying semantics visualizations beyond analytical search and simulation. The goal is to give a common understanding of the term semantics as it is used in semantic web. This paper dealt with the general idea of semantics visualization. First a short introduction to semantic formalisms is given followed by a general definition. Subsequently approaches and techniques of existing semantics visualizations are presented, where-as a new classification is introduced to describe the techniques. The article concludes with future challenges in semantics visualization focusing on users, data and tasks.

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Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle

2015

Public Affairs and Administration

The purpose of this chapter is to outline an advanced policy lifecycle, the FUPOL model with its ability to link technical features in the area of policy modeling. The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle is based on 6 stages, which are further divided into 8 main tasks. These main tasks are split up into 19 subtasks to provide a very detailed policy lifecycle structure. The detailed breakdown allows one to link each task to various technical features, such as opinion maps, policy indicator dashboard, knowledge database, and simulation and visualization tools. The chapter further argues that the methodology applied is future proof and has the potential of accommodating new technologies in the future.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Reimond; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Fellner, Dieter W.

Visual Trend Analysis with Digital Libraries

2015

i-KNOW 2015

International Conference on Knowledge Management and Data-driven Business (I-KNOW) <15, 2015, Graz, Austria>

The early awareness of new technologies and upcoming trends is essential for making strategic decisions in enterprises and research. Trends may signal that technologies or related topics might be of great interest in the future or obsolete for future directions. The identification of such trends premises analytical skills that can be supported through trend mining and visual analytics. Thus the earliest trends or signals commonly appear in science, the investigation of digital libraries in this context is inevitable. However, digital libraries do not provide sufficient information for analyzing trends. It is necessary to integrate data, extract information from the integrated data and provide effective interactive visual analysis tools. We introduce in this paper a model that investigates all stages from data integration to interactive visualization for identifying trends and analyzing the market situation through our visual trend analysis environment. Our approach improves the visual analysis of trends by investigating the entire transformation steps from raw and structured data to visual representations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Hoppe, David; Nazemi, Mariam

Web-based Evaluation of Information Visualization

2015

Procedia Manufacturing

International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) <6, 2015, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA>

Information visualization is strongly related to human perception, human behavior, and in particular human interaction. It is a discipline that focuses on human to enable him gathering insights, knowledge, and solving various and heterogeneous tasks. The human-centered characteristic of information visualization requires valid and proper user studies that improve the system or validate their benefits. New methods, techniques, or approaches of information visualization are commonly evaluated. However, the evaluation is either time and cost consuming or they are made minimum resources that leads to results, which may not be valid. In particular the number of participants is commonly restricted and does not enable a valid assumption about the results. Thus performance measures plays a key role in information visualization, existing web-survey tools are not convenient. We introduce in this paper a new method that enables web-based evaluations of information visualization systems. Our main contribution is the enhancement of web-based survey tools with performance measures. Our approach enables the measurement of task-completion time, correctness of solved tasks, and includes a number of pre- and post-questionnaires.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Fellner, Dieter W. [Betreuer]; Wrobel, Stefan [Referent]

Adaptive Semantics Visualization

2014

Eurographics Association

Darmstadt, TU, Diss., 2014

Human access to the increasing amount of information and data plays an essential role for the professional level and also for everyday life. While information visualization has developed new and remarkable ways for visualizing data and enabling the exploration process, adaptive systems focus on users' behavior to tailor information for supporting the information acquisition process. Recent research on adaptive visualization shows promising ways of synthesizing these two complementary approaches and make use of the surpluses of both disciplines. The emerged methods and systems aim to increase the performance, acceptance, and user experience of graphical data representations for a broad range of users. Although the evaluation results of the recently proposed systems are promising, some important aspects of information visualization are not considered in the adaptation process. The visual adaptation is commonly limited to change either visual parameters or replace visualizations entirely. Further, no existing approach adapts the visualization based on data and user characteristics. Other limitations of existing approaches include the fact that the visualizations require training by experts in the field. In this thesis, we introduce a novel model for adaptive visualization. In contrast to existing approaches, we have focused our investigation on the potentials of information visualization for adaptation. Our reference model for visual adaptation not only considers the entire transformation, from data to visual representation, but also enhances it to meet the requirements for visual adaptation. Our model adapts different visual layers that were identified based on various models and studies on human visual perception and information processing. In its adaptation process, our conceptual model considers the impact of both data and user on visualization adaptation. We investigate different approaches and models and their effects on system adaptation to gather implicit information about users and their behavior. These are than transformed and applied to affect the visual representation and model human interaction behavior with visualizations and data to achieve a more appropriate visual adaptation. Our enhanced user model further makes use of the semantic hierarchy to enable a domain-independent adaptation. To face the problem of a system that requires to be trained by experts, we introduce the canonical user model that models the average usage behavior with the visualization environment. Our approach learns from the behavior of the average user to adapt the different visual layers and transformation steps. This approach is further enhanced with similarity and deviation analysis for individual users to determine similar behavior on an individual level and identify differing behavior from the canonical model. Users with similar behavior get similar visualization and data recommendations, while behavioral anomalies lead to a lower level of adaptation. Our model includes a set of various visual layouts that can be used to compose a multi-visualization interface, a sort of "'visualization cockpit"'. This model facilitates various visual layouts to provide different perspectives and enhance the ability to solve difficult and exploratory search challenges. Data from different data-sources can be visualized and compared in a visual manner. These different visual perspectives on data can be chosen by users or can be automatically selected by the system. This thesis further introduces the implementation of our model that includes additional approaches for an efficient adaptation of visualizations as proof of feasibility. We further conduct a comprehensive user study that aims to prove the benefits of our model and underscore limitations for future work. The user study with overall 53 participants focuses with its four conditions on our enhanced reference model to evaluate the adaptation effects of the different visual layers.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Retz, Reimond; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Adaptive Visualization of Linked-Data

2014

Advances in Visual Computing. 10th International Symposium, ISVC 2014

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <10, 2014, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

Adaptive visualizations reduces the required cognitive effort to comprehend interactive visual pictures and amplify cognition. Although the research on adaptive visualizations grew in the last years, the existing approaches do not consider the transformation pipeline from data to visual representation for a more efficient and effective adaptation. Further todays systems commonly require an initial training by experts from the field and are limited to adaptation based either on user behavior or on data characteristics. A combination of both is not proposed to our knowledge. This paper introduces an enhanced instantiation of our previously proposed model that combines both: involving different influencing factors for and adapting various levels of visual peculiarities, on content, visual layout, visual presentation, and visual interface. Based on data type and users' behavior, our system adapts a set of applicable visualization types. Moreover, retinal variables of each visualization type are adapted to meet individual or canonical requirements on both, data types and users' behavior. Our system does not require an initial expert modeling.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Adaptive Visualization of Social Media Data for Policy Modeling

2014

Advances in Visual Computing. 10th International Symposium, ISVC 2014

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <10, 2014, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

The visual analysis of social media data emerged a huge number of interactive visual representations that use different characteristics of the data to enable the process of information acquisition. The social data are used in the domain of policy modeling to gather information about citizens' demands, opinions, and requirements and help to decide about political policies. Although existing systems already provide a huge number of visual analysis tools, the search and exploration paradigm is not really clear. Furthermore, the systems commonly do not provide any kind of human centered adaptation for the different stakeholders involved in the policy making process. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach that investigates the exploration and search paradigm from two different perspectives and enables a visual adaptation to support the exploration and analysis process.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Klamm, Christopher; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Comparison of e-Participation Roadmap in Industrial and Developing Countries based on Germany and Kenya

2014

ICEGOV 2014

International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV) <8, 2014, Guimaraes, Portugal>

This paper compares the E-Participation roadmaps of industrial and developing countries, based on Germany and Kenya as representatives. Therefore, the ICT roadmap of each country is de-scribed in a clear shape and with representative E-Participation projects of each country. Based on these projects, the comparison is performed on a categorical level in terms of (1) participation forms, (2) used ICT, and (3) socio-political requirements. After-wards, the results are summarized to determine an overall view on the E-Participation situation in both countries. As a result of the comparison similarities and significant differences will be identified. The results are useful for software developing organizations that want to create ICT governance tools for industrial as well as developing countries and therefore need to consider the characteristics and requirements of both country types.

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Becker, Tilman; Burghart, Catherina; Nazemi, Kawa; Ndjiki-Nya, Patrick; Riegel, Thomas; Schäfer, Ralf; Sporer, Thomas; Tresp, Volker; Wissmann, Jens

Core Technologies for the Internet of Services

2014

Towards the Internet of Services: The THESEUS Research Program

Information and knowledge are growing permanently and represent valuable resources for many enterprises. The efficient access to knowledge of an enterprise like expertise, contact persons, project and milestone plans, etc. may simplify business processes and lead to time and cost savings. Semantic technologies offer numerous possibilities to enrich data with background information about their meaning. Such semantic relations do not only lead to more efficient search in larger information repositories but they also assist the user in diverse processes like editing, annotation, and processing of information. In addition they offer new means of access and transfer of knowledge. Each information unit is linked to other units in the same domain, which allows faster search and offers a way of information access that is close to the habits of humans, i.e. the creation of knowledge and its association to already existing knowledge. This approach of the whole THESEUS research program was also the basis of the CORE TECHNOLOGY CLUSTER of THESEUS.

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May, Thorsten; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

From Raw Data to Rich Visualization: Combining Visual Search with Data Analysis

2014

Towards the Internet of Services: The THESEUS Research Program

Visual analytics is an interdisciplinary field of research at the boundary between data mining, statistics and visualization. Patterns and relations in the data complement a semantic representation of knowledge on a lower level of abstraction. One important goal of visual analytics is to find relations hidden in vast amounts of data, which can be turned into useful knowledge. Analysis needs to be "visual", because human's visual cognitive abilities are important for the identification and refinement of the analytical process. Further the results of the analysis have to be presented in a way to match the user's perspective on the proposed task. However, typical users are not experts in statistics or data mining. The challenge of visual analytics is to keep domain experts in charge of the analytical process while reducing the workload due to the complexity of the techniques. While search and analysis usually arc mentioned in different contexts, they are highly interdependent processes. In fact, every exploratory analysis is a search for new knowledge. In turn, this knowledge can be used to refine future searches by introducing new concepts or relations to draw from. This article will show how automated and visual methods can be combined to connect knowledge artifacts on multiple levels of abstraction.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Zilke, Jan Ruben; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

Fundamental Aspects for E-Government

2014

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

The upcoming initiatives using ICT in the government process should strengthen the benefit of E-Government in most countries. Since E-Government among other e-related terms is a widely (interpreted) term, it is sometimes challenging to understand the objective and goals of an initiative. Therefore in this paper we introduce and explain the most E-Government related terms. Even more, we outline some interesting initiatives and implementations to explain the benefits of using ICT in the government domain. So next to the term description, concrete activities will be aligned to the terms to explain the practical use in a better way. We conclude with several challenges that arise when thinking of the implementation of E-Government services. Overall this chapter should give a good overall view about E-Government and the relating issues.

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Ginters, Egils; Aizstrauts, Artis; Baltruks, Mikelis; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Gutierrez, Jorge Martin

Fupol Simulators and Advanced Visualization Framework Integration

2014

26th European Modeling and Simulation Symposium

European Modeling and Simulation Symposium (EMSS) <26, 2014, Bordeaux, France>

FP7 FUPOL project No.287119 (see www.fupol.eu) aims at a new approach to traditional politics modeling. The FUPOL will be able to automatically collect, analyze and interpret opinions expressed on a large scale from the Internet and social networks. This will enable governments to gain a better understanding of the needs of citizens. Likewise the software will have the capabilities to simulate the effects of policies and laws and to assist governments in the whole policy design process. Basic visualization of the simulation results are supported by the simulators however visualization facilities are limited, therefore for detailed visual analysis of simulation data SemasVis environment is used.

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Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Burkhardt, Dirk

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

2014

IGI Global

As governments and policy makers take advantage of information and communication technologies, leaders must understand how to navigate the ever-shifting landscape of modern technologies in order to be most effective in enacting change and leading their constituents. Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling builds on the available literature, research, and recent advances in e-governance to explore advanced methods and applications of digital tools in government. This collection of the latest research in the field presents an essential reference for academics, researchers, and advanced-level students, as well as government leaders, policy makers, and experts in international relations.

9781466662360

1466662360

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Nazemi, Kawa; Steiger, Martin; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Information Visualization and Policy Modeling

2014

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

Policy design requires the investigation of various data in several design steps for making the right decisions, validating, or monitoring the political environment. The increasing amount of data is challenging for the stakeholders in this domain. One promising way to access the "big data" is by abstracted visual patterns and pictures, as proposed by information visualization. This chapter introduces the main idea of information visualization in policy modeling. First abstracted steps of policy design will be introduced that enables the identification of information visualization need in the entire policy lifecycle. Thereafter the foundations of information visualization will be introduced based on an established reference model. We aim to amplify the incorporation of information visualization in the entire policy design process. Therefore the aspects of data and human interaction will be introduced too. The foundation leads to description of a conceptual design for social data visualization, whereas the aspect of semantics plays an important role.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan; Hutter, Marco; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Fellner, Dieter W.

Measuring Context Relevance for Adaptive Semantics Visualizations

2014

i-KNOW 2014

International Conference on Knowledge Technologies and Data-driven Business (I-KNOW) <14, 2014, Graz, Austria>

Semantics visualizations enable the acquisition of information to amplify the acquisition of knowledge. The dramatic increase of semantics in form of Linked Data and Linked-Open Data yield search databases that allow to visualize the entire context of search results. The visualization of this semantic context enables one to gather more information at once, but the complex structures may as well confuse and frustrate users. To overcome the problems, adaptive visualizations already provide some useful methods to adapt the visualization on users' demands and skills. Although these methods are very promising, these systems do not investigate the relevance of semantic neighboring entities that commonly build most information value. We introduce two new measurements for the relevance of neighboring entities: The Inverse Instance Frequency allows weighting the relevance of semantic concepts based on the number of their instances. The Direct Relation Frequency inverse Relations Frequency measures the relevance of neighboring instances by the type of semantic relations. Both measurements provide a weighting of neighboring entities of a selected semantic instance, and enable an adaptation of retinal variables for the visualized graph. The algorithms can easily be integrated into adaptive visualizations and enhance them with the relevance measurement of neighboring semantic entities. We give a detailed description of the algorithms to enable a replication for the adaptive and semantics visualization community. With our method, one can now easily derive the relevance of neighboring semantic entities of selected instances, and thus gain more information at once, without confusing and frustrating users.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Policy Modeling Methodologies

2014

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

The process to develop sustainable public policies is precisely defined in public authorities to ensure the involvement of all stakeholders and to ensure the creation of an effective policy. The inclusion of ICT in most of the today's applied policy making processes in public authorities is mostly less considered. Indeed, other process definitions with focus on ICT inclusion in policy modeling still exist, but they are mostly not well defined. This chapter gives an overview about the existing policy modeling process types and explains their major focus and how they consider ICT and the practical process in public authorities. Afterwards based on these descriptions the general requirements on a new ICT-oriented policy modeling process that allows the inclusion of ICT into a valid and useful process for public authorities will be given.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Kohlhammer, Jörn

SemaVis: A New Approach for Visualizing Semantic Information

2014

Towards the Internet of Services: The THESEUS Research Program

Information is an indispensable resource today. Access to and interaction with information play more and more a key role, whereas the amount of accessible information increases. Semantic technologies provide new solutions to structure this important property. One promising way to access the complex semantic structures and the huge amount of data is visualization. Today's Semantic Visualization systems offer primarily proprietary solutions for predefined and known users and usage scenarios. The adaptation to other scenarios and users is often cost-and time-consuming. This article presents a novel model for a fully adaptable and adaptive Semantics Visualization framework. Starling with the introduction of a new visualization model, the implementation of this model will be described. The article concludes with selected advantages of the described visualization technology.

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Sonntagbauer, Susanne; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle

2014

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

The purpose of this chapter is to outline an advanced policy lifecycle, the FUPOL model with its ability to link technical features in the area of policy modeling. The FUPOL Policy Lifecycle is based on six stages, which are further divided into ten main tasks. These main tasks are split up into eighteen subtasks to provide a very detailed policy lifecycle structure. The detailed breakdown allows to link each task to various technical features, such as opinion maps, policy indicator dashboard, knowledge data base, simulation and visualization tools. It is further argued that the methodology applied is future proof and has the potential of accommodating new technologies in the future.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Kuijper, Arjan

User Similarity and Deviation Analysis for Adaptive Visualizations

2014

Human Interface and the Management of Information. Proceedings Part I

International Conference on Human Interface and the Management of Information (HIMI) <2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece>

Adaptive visualizations support users in information acquisition and exploration and therewith in human access of data. Their adaptation effect is often based on approaches that require the training by an expert. Further the effects often aim to support just the individual aptitudes. This paper introduces an approach for modeling a canonical user that makes the predefined training-files dispensable and enables an adaptation of visualizations for the majority of users. With the introduced user deviation algorithm, the behavior of individuals can be compared to the average user behavior represented in the canonical user model to identify behavioral anomalies. The further introduced similarity measurements allow to cluster similar deviated behavioral patterns as groups and provide them effective visual adaptations.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Parisay, Mohsen; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Correlation Analysis to Explain Open Government Data based on Linked-Open Data for Decision Making

2014

International Journal of Digital Society

Public authorities normally consider statistical data about indicators in their decision makings. Such valid kind of data allows an objective observation about indicator developments over time. In case of a significant deviation from the normal indicator level, it is difficult to understand the reasons for upcoming problems. In this article we present an approach that allows an enhanced information gathering through an improved information overview about the depending aspects to such an indicator by considering governmental data-sources that provide also other types of data than just statistics. Even more, our approach integrates a system that allows generating explanations for Open Government Data, especially to specific indicators, based on Linked-Open Data and shows it in graphical form to enable a fast overview gathering. This allows decision-makers to get hints for unexpected reasons of concrete problems that may influence an indicator.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Explanation of Government-Data for Policy Making through Open-Data Inclusion

2014

International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions

International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST) <9, 2014, London, UK>

Commonly, data used in public authorities are statistical data about certain indicator. Such valid kind of data allows an objective observation about indicator developments over time. In case of a significant deviation from the normal indicator level, it is difficult to understand the reasons for upcoming problems. In our paper we present an approach that allows an enhanced information gathering through an improved information overview about the depending aspects to such an indicator by considering governmental data-sources that provide also other types of data than just statistics. Even more, our approach integrates a system that allows generating explanations for Open Government Data, especially to specific indicators, based on Linked-Open Data. This enables decision-makers to get hints for unexpected reasons of concrete problems that may influence an indicator.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Process Support to Assist Users in Policy Making

2014

Handbook of Research on Advanced ICT Integration for Governance and Policy Modeling

The policy making process requires the involvement of various stakeholders, who bring in very heterogeneous experiences and skills concerning the policy making domain, as well as experiences of ICT solutions. Current solutions primary designed to provide "one-solution-fits-all", which in most cases fail the needs of all stakeholders. In this paper we introduce a new approach to assist users based on their tasks. Therefore the system observes the interaction of the user and recognizes the current phase of the policy making process and the profile of the user to assist him more sufficiently in solving his task. For this purpose the system automatically enables or disables supporting features such as visualization, tools and supporting techniques.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Encarnação, José Daniel; Retz, Wilhelm; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visualization Adaptation Based on Environmental Influencing Factors

2014

Human-Computer Interaction: Part 1

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <16, 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece>

Working effectively with computer-based devices is challenging, especially under mobile conditions, due to the various environmental influences. In this paper a visualization adaptation approach is described, to support the user under discriminatory environmental conditions. For this purpose, a context model for environmental influencing factors is being defined. Based on this context model, an approach to adapt visualizations in regards of certain environmental influences is being evolved, such as the light intensity, air quality, or heavy vibrations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Retz, Reimond; Bernard, Jürgen; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Fellner, Dieter W.

Adaptive Semantic Visualization for Bibliographic Entries

2013

Advances in Visual Computing. 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <9, 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece>

Adaptive visualizations aim to reduce the complexity of visual representations and convey information using interactive visualizations. Although the research on adaptive visualizations grew in the last years, the existing approaches do not make use of the variety of adaptable visual variables. Further the existing approaches often premises experts, who has to model the initial visualization design. In addition, current approaches either incorporate user behavior or data types. A combination of both is not proposed to our knowledge. This paper introduces the instantiation of our previously proposed model that combines both: involving different influencing factors for and adapting various levels of visual peculiarities, on visual layout and visual presentation in a multiple visualization environment. Based on data type and users' behavior, our system adapts a set of applicable visualization types. Moreover, retinal variables of each visualization type are adapted to meet individual or canonic requirements on both, data types and users' behavior. Our system does not require an initial expert modeling.

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Borger, Renate; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Benutzermodellierung für adaptive Informationsvisualisierungen

2013

Braunschweig, TU, Master Thesis, 2013

Informationsvisualisierungen dienen dazu Benutzer bei der Suche nach Informationen zu unterstützen, indem komplexe Daten visuell so aufbereitet werden, dass Benutzern das Lösen unterschiedlicher Aufgaben effizient und effektiv ermöglicht wird. Hierzu ist die Usability von Benutzerschnittstellen erforderlich, die Anforderungen an die Gebrauchstauglichkeit anhand verschiedener Kriterien für Benutzerschnittstellen definiert. Es gibt Benutzerschnittstellen der Informationsvisualisierung, die Usability-Kriterien erfüllen, jedoch berücksichtigen sie meistens nicht den Benutzer als Individuum, der individuelle Bedürfnisse und Fähigkeiten hat oder bestimmte Aufgaben erfüllen möchte. Der Fokus der Forschungsarbeiten um die Informationsvisualisierung liegt derzeit auf adaptiven Visualisierungen, um individuelle Benutzer bei ihren Aufgaben mit Visualisierungen gezielter zu unterstützen. Hierzu werden Methoden adaptiver Systeme eingesetzt, die Adaption basierend auf Benutzermodellen durchführen. Dies wird ermöglicht, indem Benutzercharakteristika durch Interaktion erfasst werden. Dabei wird oft vernachlässigt wie die erfassten Benutzercharakteristika auf Visualisierungen übertragen werden können, um dem Benutzer adaptive Visualisierungen bereitzustellen. In dieser Masterarbeit wurde daher ein Konzept eines Benutzermodells für den Einsatz in adaptiven Visualisierungen erstellt. Durch die Benutzermodellierung für adaptive Informationsvisualisierungen kann die Usability in Benutzerschnittstellen verbessert werden. Dies hat den Vorteil, dass Benutzer Visualisierungsaufgaben effektiver und effizienter lösen können. Da Informationsvisualisierungen, die sich an Benutzer anpassen eine erhebliche Auswirkung auf die Effektivität, während einer Visualisierungsaufgabe haben. Um grundlegende Aspekte für adaptive Visualisierungen bereitzustellen, wurden relevante Benutzercharakteristika, die durch Interaktion erfassbar sind, erarbeitet. Diese Benutzercharakteristika werden aus der Interaktion mit der Visualisierung gewonnen. Hierzu wurden prinzipielle Ansätze zur Erfassung sowie Modellierung dieser Informationen erläutert.

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Sonntagbauer, Peter; Rumm, Nikolaus; Kagitcioglu, Hakan; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk

GIS, Social Media and Simulation In Integrated ICT Solutions for Urban Futures

2013

14th N-AERUS Conference 2013

N-AERUS Conference <14, 2013, Enschede, The Netherlands>

ICT tools and their methods to support the policy lifecycle in urban planning have drastically changed with the emergence of social media, advanced simulation techniques, open government data, big data, opinion mining, advanced text analytics and visualization. All those components should be combined with GIS. Current ICT solutions supporting e-participation and collaborative urban planning are focused on solving a specific problem. They are not integrated neither on the conceptual nor on the technical level. The conceptual level referring to the policy lifecycle, the technical level to data integration and user interface. This paper describes a new integrated approach to policy design and implementation. It consists of an advanced policy lifecycle and an IT-solution with features supporting all phases of the proposed lifecycle. The concept as well as the technical architecture as implemented in the Future Policy Modelling Project (FUPOL) to achieve such a complete integration with separate applications is outlined.

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Retz, Wilhelm; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]; Kuijper, Arjan [Betreuer]

Integration heterogener Methoden der Empfehlungssysteme zur Visualisierungsadaption

2013

Darmstadt, TU, Diplomarbeit, 2013

Die stetig wachsende Menge der Daten in digitalen Archiven und insbesondere im Web stellt eine große Herausforderung für Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien. Dabei spielt insbesondere der menschliche Zugang zu den Informationen eine wesentliche Rolle. Verschiedene Ansätze setzen sich mit dem menschlichen Zugang zu den Daten auseinander. So werden etwa Daten für das semantische Web semi-automatisiert formalisiert und mit "Bedeutung" angereichert. Informationsvisualisierung und Visual Analytics beschäftigt sich mit der visuellen Aufbereitung, um den Zugang zu den Daten zu ermöglichen, zu erleichtern und Lösungswege für verschiedenartige Aufgaben mit großen Daten zu ermöglichen. Empfehlungssysteme bieten Technologien und Ansätze an, um Daten mit einer Metrik zu versehen und ein entsprechendes Ranking für die Datenentitäten zu vergeben. Bei all diesen Verfahren und Ansätzen steht der Mensch im Vordergrund. Insbesondere Empfehlungssysteme analysieren fortlaufend den Menschen und seinen Umgang mit Daten und Systemen. Die Darstellung dieser Empfehlungssysteme ist jedoch oft auf gewichtete Listen beschränkt. Die Vorteile der explorativen Ansätze der Informationsvisualisierung finden kaum Anwendung. Wobei die Ansätze der Informationsvisualisierung, insbesondere zur Lösung von komplexen kognitiven Aufgaben, oft Expertenwissen voraussetzt. Das sehr junge Gebiet der adaptiven Visualisierungen beschäftigt sich daher mit der Frage, wie die Informationsvisualisierung auf die Bedürfnisse der jeweiligen Benutzer eingehen kann. Dabei werden Ansätze, die auch in Empfehlungssysteme eingesetzt werden, in die Informationsvisualisierung übertragen. Dies erfolgt oft mit dem Hintergrund die Menge auf Datenebene zu reduzieren. Jene Ansätze, die das Benutzungsverhalten im Vergleich zu anderen Benutzern messen und auswerten, werden in existierenden Systemen nicht eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Diplomarbeit stellt ein Verfahren vor, das die Methoden der kollaborativen Empfehlungssysteme auf adaptive Visualisierungen überträgt. Dabei werden lediglich implizite Benutzungsinformationen verwendet, um eine Rollen- und Gruppenzuweisung vorzunehmen und in einem Benutzermodell zu überführen und Visualisierungen in verschiedenen Abstraktionsstufen and individuelle Benutzer und Benutzergruppen zu adaptieren.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Sonntagbauer, Peter; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Interactive Visualizations in the Process of Policy Modeling

2013

Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

International conferences on Electronic GOVernment (EGOV) <2013, Koblenz, Germany>

The policy making process in public authorities is nowadays usually an offline process. ICT is just very conservatively used, which also limits the inclusion of citizens' opinions. In difference the ICT sector consists of a rapid development in the area of eParticitpation and also in data-storing approaches and visualizations. But today it is hard to assign such new technical approaches to the policy modeling process, because of their non-ICT orientation. In this paper we introduce a new detailed ICT-based policy modeling process and an assignment of some modern ICT technology features. To support decision-makers, the main contribution of this paper is an assignment of useful visualization-types to the technological features and furthermore to the ICT-based policy-making process. Therewith we describe an approach how interactive visualizations can lead to a more effective policy making.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Steiger, Martin; Kuijper, Arjan; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Statistics Cockpits for Information Gathering in the Policy-Making Process

2013

Advances in Visual Computing. 9th International Symposium, ISVC 2013

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <9, 2013, Rethymnon, Crete, Greece>

A major step in ICT-driven policy making is information gathering. During this phase, analysts and experts have to deal with a high number of statistical data which they use as a basis to identify problems and find appropriate solutions. This paper introduces a statistical data model to support these analysts and experts. It allows for handling the complexity (i.e. the dimensions) of the data for the visualizations. In particular, it helps to use the same data for two-dimensional, but also multi-dimensional statistics visualizations. Based on this statistic data model we introduce an interactive approach of visual statistics cockpits. This results in highly interactive statistics visualization cockpits that enable both analysts and experts to improve problem assessment and solution finding.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Visual Variables in Adaptive Visualizations

2013

UMAP 2013 Extended Proceedings

International Workshop on User-Adaptive Visualization (WUAV) <1, 2013, Rome, Italy>

Visualizations provide various variables for the adaptation to the usage context and the users. Today's adaptive visualizations make use of various visual variables to order or filter information or visualizations. However, the capabilities of visual variables in context of human information processing and tasks are not comprehensively exploited. This paper discusses the value of the different visual variables providing beneficial and more accurately adapted information visualizations.

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Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa

Visualizing Search Results of Linked Open Data

2013

Semantic Models for Adaptive Interactive Systems

Finding accurate information of high quality is still a challenging task particularly with regards to the increasing amount of resources in current information systems. This is especially true if policy decisions that impact humans, economy or environment are based on the demanded information. For improving search result generation and analyzing user queries more and more information retrieval systems utilize Linked Open Data and other semantic knowledge bases. Nevertheless, the semantic information that is used during search result generation mostly remains hidden from the users although it significantly supports users in understanding and assessing search results. The presented approach combines information visualizations with semantic information for offering visual feedback about the reasons the results were retrieved. It visually represents the semantic interpretation and the relation between query terms and search results to offer more transparency in search result generation and allows users to unambiguously assess the relevance of the retrieved resources for their individual search. The approach also supports the common search strategies by providing visual feedback for query refinement and enhancement. Besides the detailed description of the search system, an evaluation of the approach shows that the use of semantic information considerably supports users in assessment and decision-making tasks.

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Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Analytical Semantics Visualization for Discovering Latent Signals in Large Text Collections

2012

Proceedings of SIGRAD 2012

SIGRAD Conference <11, 2012, Växjö, Sweden>

Considering the increasing pressure of competition and high dynamics of markets, the early identification and specific handling of novel developments and trends becomes more and more important for competitive companies. Today, those signals are encoded in large amounts of textual data like competitors' web sites, news articles, scientific publications or blog entries which are freely available in the web. Processing large amounts of textual data is still a tremendous challenge for current business analysts and strategic decision makers. Although current information systems are able to process that amount of data and provide a wide range of information retrieval tools, it is almost impossible to keep track of each thread or opportunity The presented approach combines semantic search and data mining techniques with interactive visualizations for analyzing and identifying weak signals in large text collections. Beside visual summarization tools, it includes an enhanced trend visualization that supports analysts in identifying latent topic-related relations between competitors and their temporal relevance. It includes a graph-based visualization tool for representing relations identified during semantic analysis. The interaction design allows analysts to verify their retrieved hypothesis by exploring the documents that are responsible for the current view.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa

Dynamic Process Support Based on Users' Behavior

2012

ICL 2012

International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) <15, 2012, Villach, Austria>

Nowadays there is a gap between the possibilities and the massively existing data on the one side and the user as main worker on the other side. In different scenarios e.g. search, exploration, analysis and policy-modeling a user has to deal with massive information, but for this work he usually gets a static designed system. So meanwhile data-driven work-processes are increasing in its complexity the support of the users who are working with these data is limited on basic features. Hence this paper describes a concept for a process-supporting approach, which includes relevant aspects of users' behaviors in support him to successfully finish also complex tasks. This will be achieved by a process-based guidance with an automatic tools selection for every process and activity on the one hand. And on the other hand the consideration of expert-level of a user to a single task and process. This expert-level will be classified during each task and process interaction and allow the automatically selection of optimal tools for a concrete task. In final the user gets for every task an automatically initialized user-interface with useful and required tools.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Steiger, Martin; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa

Interactive Exploration System: A User-Centered Interaction Approach in Semantics Visualizations

2012

2012 International Conference on Cyberworlds. Proceedings

International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW) <11, 2012, Darmstadt, Germany>

Nowadays a wide range of input devices are available to users of technical systems. Especially modern alternative interaction devices, which are known from game consoles etc., provide a more natural way of interaction. In parallel to that the research on visualization of large amount of data advances very quickly. This research was also influenced by the semantic web and the idea of storing data in a structured and linked form. The semantically annotated data gains more and more importance in information acquisition processes. Especially the Linked Open Data (LOD) format already experienced a huge growth. However, the user-interfaces of web-applications mostly do not reflect the added value of semantics data. This paper describes the conceptual design and implementation of an Interactive Exploration System that offers a user-centered graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize explorative learning, and the integration of a taxonomy-based approach to enable the use of more natural interaction metaphors, as they are possible with modern devices like WiiMote or Microsoft Kinect. Therefore we introduce a different classification for interaction devices, and current approaches for supporting the added values in semantics visualizations. Furthermore, we describe the concept of our IES, including a strategy to organize and structure today's existing input devices, and a semantics exploration system driven by user-experience. We conclude the paper with a description of the implementation of the IES and an application scenario.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kohlhammer, Jörn

Semantics Visualization for Fostering Search Result Comprehension

2012

The Semantic Web: Research and Applications. Proceedings

Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC) <9, 2012, Heraklion, Greece>

Current search engines present search results in an ordered list even if semantic technologies are used for analyzing user queries and the document contents. The semantic information that is used during the search result generation mostly remains hidden from the user although it significantly supports users in understanding why search results are considered as relevant for their individual query. The approach presented in this paper utilizes visualization techniques for offering visual feedback about the reasons the results were retrieved. It represents the semantic neighborhood of search results, the relations between results and query terms as well as the relevance of search results and the semantic interpretation of query terms for fostering search result comprehension. It also provides visual feedback for query enhancement. Therefore, not only the search results are visualized but also further information that occurs during the search processing is used to improve the visual presentation and to offer more transparency in search result generation. The results of an evaluation in a real application scenario show that the presented approach considerably supports users in assessment and decision-making tasks and alleviates information seeking in digital semantic knowledge bases.

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Kohlhammer, Jörn; Nazemi, Kawa; Ruppert, Tobias; Burkhardt, Dirk

Toward Visualization in Policy Modeling

2012

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications

Graphically Speaking

Information visualization and visual analytics have become widely recognized research fields applied to a variety of domains and data-related challenges. This development's main driver has been the rapidly increasing amount of data that must be dealt with daily. At the same time, citizens, shareholders, and customers expect highly efficient, informed decision-making based on increasingly complex, dynamic, and interdependent data and information. All this applies in many ways to public-policy modeling. As the recent financial crisis has shown, policy making and regulation are highly challenging tasks. The outcomes of policy choices and individual behavior aren't easily predictable in our complex society. Ubiquitous computing, crowd sourcing, and open data, to name just a few examples, are creating masses of data that governments struggle to make sense of for policy modeling. Increasingly, policy makers are perceiving visualization and data analysis as critical to this sense-making process. This article examines the current and future roles of information visualization, semantics visualization, and VA in policy modeling.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Ruppert, Tobias; Nazemi, Kawa

Towards Process-Oriented Information Visualization for Supporting Users

2012

ICL 2012

International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) <15, 2012, Villach, Austria>

Nowadays daily office work consists of dealing with big numbers of data and data sources, and furthermore of working with complex computer programs. In consequence many users have problems to use such programs effective and efficient. In particular beginners have significant problems to use the programs correctly due to complex functionality and interaction options. To avoid this overload of the user, the Information Visualization community has recently developed some approaches that aim to support the users. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited to one special aspect, and sometimes they are just appropriate for one special task. Thus, in this paper we introduce a process-oriented user-supporting approach. It allows selecting adequate supporting techniques in correlation to a performed process and activity to guide the user and help him to solve his task. Furthermore, we show the benefits of designing programs and applications, which implement process definitions for the existing tasks to provide the user with better process orientation. This guides the user through difficult and complex processes.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Christ, Oliver

Verbalization in Search: Implication for the Need of Adaptive Visualizations

2012

Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design

International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) <4, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA>

Interactive information visualization enables human to interact with huge and complex data and gather implicit information. Different visualization strategies allow solving visualization tasks e.g., exploring information, making decision or searching explicit information. The process of searching information premises the human verbalization ability. The solving probability of a search problem increases with the precise ability of formulating the query. The query formulation depends on pre-knowledge and verbalization ability of the subject. In this paper we show that, beside the interactive information visualization technique like bottom up or top down, the need of additional ideas e.g. adaptive visualization to increase the verbalization abilities of subjects should be implemented. This is endorsed by an evaluation study of users with significant differences in previous subjective ratings of high or low values of self-assurance in working with personal computers. The results of this evaluation let us assume that personalized or adaptive visualization will help to enhance the verbalization ability and therewith the search and exploration efficiency in subjects with low values of self-assurance. The paper concludes with a short description of an adaptive semantics visualization model.

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Breyer, Matthias; Birkenbusch , Jana; Burkhardt, Dirk; Schwarz, Christopher; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Christ, Oliver

Visualizations Encourage Uncertain Users to High Effectiveness

2012

Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design

International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) <4, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA>

Users have to handle a lot of information in order to fulfill their current task. For achieving an appropriate time and level of quality the users' motivation plays a key role. In this paper we present a user study which aimed to evaluate if the self-rated expertise of the subjects in their computer system skills has an impact on their task completion effectiveness using visualizations. The results reveal that regardless of the self-rated assurance of the users, no significant difference in the effectiveness of task completions using visualizations could be registered. Furthermore the participants indicate in the questionnaire that using visualization their individual satisfaction level had no significant differences when compared to the users' self-assurance levels. This indicates even users feeling not confident in interacting with computer systems they may feel confident in interacting with visualizations. Thus if visualizations are applied for tasks of information search and exploration, the user is encouraged to higher effectiveness.

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Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

A Comprehensive Reference Model for Personalized Recommender Systems

2011

Human Interface and the Management of Information: Part I

Symposium on Human Interface <2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Existing reference models for recommender systems are on an abstract level of detail or do not point out the processes and transitions of recommendation systems. However, this information is relevant for developers to design or improve recommendation systems. Even so, users need some background information of the calculation process to understand the process and accept or configure these systems proper. In this paper we present a comprehensive reference model for recommender systems which conjuncts the recommendation processes on an adequate level of detail. To achieve this, the processes of content-based and collaboration-based systems are merged and extended by the transitions and phases of hybrid systems. Furthermore, the algorithms which can be applied in the phases of the model are examined to identify the data flow between these phases. With our model those information of the recommendation calculation process can be identified, which encourages the traceability and thus the acceptance of recommendations.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Kuijper, Arjan

A Reference Model for Adaptive Visualization Systems

2011

Human-Computer Interaction: Part I

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <14, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

One key issue of both Information Visualization as well as Adaptive User Interfaces is information overload. While both disciplines have already devised well performing algorithms, methods and applications, a real merging has not taken place yet. Only a few attempts bring the surplus values of both disciplines together, whereas a fine-grained investigation of visualization parameterization is not investigated. Today's systems focus either on the adaptation of visualization types or the parameterization of visualizations. This paper presents a reference Model for Adaptive Visualization Systems (MAVS) that allows the adaptation of both the visualization type and the visualization parameterization. Based on this model, a framework for the adaptive visualization of semantics data will be derived. A use case describing the interaction with an "adaptive visualization cockpit" covering different visualization metaphors concludes the paper.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Praetorius, Alexander; Breyer, Matthias; Kuijper, Arjan

Adapting User Interfaces by Analyzing Data Characteristics for Determining Adequate Visualizations

2011

Human Centered Design

International Conference on Human Centered Design (HCD) <2, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Today the information visualization takes in an important position, because it is required in nearly every context where large databases have to be visualized. For this challenge new approaches are needed to allow the user an adequate access to these data. Static visualizations are only able to show the data without any support to the users, which is the reason for the accomplished researches to adaptive user-interfaces, in particular for adaptive visualizations. By these approaches the visualizations were adapted to the users' behavior, so that graphical primitives were change to support a user e.g. by highlighting user-specific entities, which seems relevant for a user. This approach is commonly used, but it is limited on changes for just a single visualization. Modern heterogeneous data providing different kinds of aspects, which modern visualizations try to regard, but therefore a user often needs more than a single visualization for making an information retrieval. In this paper we describe a concept for adapting the user-interface by selecting visualizations in dependence to automatically generated data characteristics. So visualizations will be chosen, which are fitting well to the generated characteristics. Finally the user gets an aquatically arranged set of visualizations as initial point of his interaction through the data.

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Schäfer, Ralf; Becker, Tilman; Burghart, Catherina; Nazemi, Kawa; Ndjiki, Patrick; Riegel, Thomas

Basistechnologien für das Internet der Dienste

2011

Internet der Dienste

Wissen und Informationen wachsen nicht nur stetig in ihrer Menge, sie stellen heute vielmehr eine bedeutende Ressource vieler Unternehmen dar. Der effiziente Zugriff auf Unternehmenswissen, wie etwa Expertisen, Ansprechpartner, Projekt- und Meilensteinpläne etc. kann Unternehmensprozesse vereinfachen und somit zur Zeit- und Kostenreduktion beitragen. Semantische Technologien bieten zahlreiche Möglichkeiten, um Daten mit Hintergrundinformationen zu ihrer Bedeutung anzureichern und sie mit weiteren relevanten Informationseinheiten zu verbinden. Solche semantische Relationen führen nicht nur zu einer effizienteren Suche in größeren Informationsräumen, sondern unterstützen den Benutzer auch bei diversen Prozessen, wie etwa Editierung, Annotation und Verarbeitung von Informationen. Die komplexen semantischen Strukturen stellen neue Herausforderungen an die Visualisierung dar. SemaVis eine am Fraunhofer IGD entwickelte Kerntechnologie stellt eine komponentenbasierte, modulare Architektur zur Semantik-Visualisierung zur Verfügung, die die Anwendbarkeit der Visualisierungen in verschiedenen Anwendungsszenarien unter Nutzung heterogener Daten für heterogene Benutzer erlaubt.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Glaser, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Classifying Interaction Methods to Support Intuitive Interaction Devices for Creating User-Centered-Systems

2011

Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part I

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Nowadays a wide range of input devices are available to users of technical systems. Especially modern alternative interaction devices, which are known from game consoles etc., provide a more natural way of interaction. But the support in computer programs is currently a big challenge, because a high effort is to invest for developing an application that supports such alternative input devices. For this fact we made a concept for an interaction system, which supports the use of alternative interaction devices. The interaction-system consists as central element a server, which provides a simple access interface for application to support such devices. It is also possible to address an abstract device by its properties and the interaction-system overtakes the converting from a concrete device. For realizing this idea, we also defined a taxonomy for classifying interaction devices by its interaction method and in dependence to the required interaction results, like recognized gestures. Later, by using this system, it is generally possible to develop a user-centered system by integrating this interaction-system, because an adequate integration of alternative interaction devices provides a more natural and easy to understand form of interaction.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa

Facilitate Access to E-Knowledge for Adult People in Rural Areas

2011

ICERI 2011. Proceedings

International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (iCERi) <4, 2011, Madrid, Spain>

Today's society especially in the western world is marked by life-long learning, because of an increasing technology development primary in Information Communication Technologies and because of an increasing need of up-to-date experts. In contrast to urban regions, the education in rural areas often is only possible virtually. Therefore, a various number of e-Learning Systems exist, that are oftentimes hard to use especially for less computer experienced users. For providing a facilitated access to e-Knowledge in such e-Learning Systems this paper describes an approach for developing an easy usable and understandable portal that furthermore aims to achieve a positive emotional feeling. These emotional aspects, subsumed in user experience, are a necessary factor if the user should be motivated and supported during his learning process.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intelligent Exploration System - an Approach for User-centered Exploratory Learning

2011

RURALeNTER

Workshop of the EDEN Open Classroom Conference <2011, Pallini - Athens, Greece>

The following paper describes the conceptual design of an Intelligent Exploration System (IES) that offers a user-adapted graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize the explorative learning. The paper starts with a short definition of learning by exploring and introduces the Intelligent Tutoring System and Semantic Technologies for developing such an Intelligent Exploration System. The IES itself will be described with a short overview of existing learner or user analysis methods, visualization techniques for exploring knowledge with semantics technology and the explanation of the characteristics of adaptation to offer a more efficient learning environment.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

Interacting with Semantics and Time

2011

Human-Computer Interaction: Part IV

International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) <14, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Time appears in many different semantic information systems like historical databases, multimedia systems or social communities as a common attribute. Beside the temporal information, the resources in these domains are categorized in a domain-specific schema and interconnected by semantic relations. Nevertheless, the high potential of these systems is not yet exhausted completely. Even today most of these knowledge systems present timedependent semantic knowledge in textual form, what makes it difficult for the average user to understand temporal structures and dependencies. For bridging this gap between human and computer and for simplifying the exploration of time-dependent semantic knowledge, we developed a new interactive timeline visualization called SemaTime. The new designed temporal navigation concept offers an intuitive way for exploring and filtering time-depended resources. Additionally SemaTime offers navigation and visual filtering methods on the conceptual layer of the domain and is able to depict semantic relations. In this paper we describe the conceptual design of SemaTime and illustrate its application potentials in semantic search environments.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Forster, Jeanette; Burkhardt, Dirk; Kuijper, Arjan

Interacting with Semantics: A User-Centered Visualization Adaptation Based on Semantics Data

2011

Human Interface and the Management of Information: Part I

Symposium on Human Interface <2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Semantically annotated data gain more and more importance in future information acquiring processes. Especially the Linked Open Data (LOD) format has already experienced a great growth. However, the user-interfaces of web-applications mostly do not reflect the added value of semantics data. The following paper describes a new approach of user-centered data-adaptive semantics visualization, which makes use of the advantages of semantics data combined with an adaptive composition of information visualization techniques. It starts with a related work section, where existing LOD systems and information visualization techniques are described. After that, the new approach will bridge the gap between semantically annotated data (LOD) and information visualization and introduces a visualization system that adapts the composition of visualizations based on the underlying data structure. A case study of an example case will conclude this paper.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Kuijper, Arjan

Modeling Users for Adaptive Semantics Visualizations

2011

Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part II

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

The automatic adaptation of information visualization systems to the requirements of users plays a key-role in today's research. Different approaches from both disciplines try to face this phenomenon. The modeling of user is an essential part of a user-centered adaptation of visualization. In this paper we introduce a new approach for modeling users especially for semantic visualization systems. The approach consists of a three dimensional model, where semantic data, user and visualization are set in relation in different abstraction layer.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Wichert, Reiner; Fellner, Dieter W.

Natural Gesture Interaction with Accelerometer-based Devices in Ambient Assisted Environments

2011

Ambient Assisted Living

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) <4, 2011, Berlin, Germany>

Using modern interaction methods and devices provides a more natural and intuitive interaction. Currently, only mobile phones and game consoles which are supporting such gesture-based interactions have good payment-rates. This comes along, that such devices will bought not only by the traditional technical experienced consumers. The interaction with such devices becomes so easy, that also older people playing or working with them. Especially older people have more handicaps, so for them it is hard to read small text, like they are used as description to buttons on remote controls for televisions. They also become fast overstrained, so that bigger technical systems are no help for them. If it is possible to interact with gestures, all these problems can be avoided. But to allow an intuitive and easy gesture interaction, gestures have to be supported, which are easy to understand. Because of that fact, in this paper we tried to identify intuitive gestures for common interaction scenarios on computer-based systems for uses in ambient assisted environment. In this evaluation, the users should commit their opinion of intuitive gestures for different presented scenarios/tasks. Basing on these results, intuitively useable systems can be developed, so that users are able to communicate with technical systems on more intuitive level with accelerometer-based devices.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Wichert, Reiner; Fellner, Dieter W.

Natürliche Gesteninteraktion mit Beschleunigungssensorbasierten Eingabegeräten in unterstützenden Umgebungen

2011

Ambient Assisted Living

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) <4, 2011, Berlin, Germany>

Die Verwendung von modernen Interaktionsmethoden und Geräten erlaubte eine natürlichere und intuitive Interaktion. Gegenwärtig haben lediglich die Smartphones und Spielekonsolen großen Absatz, welche eine gestenbasierte Interaktion unterstützen. Dies geht einher, dass solche Geräte nicht nur von technisch versierten Konsumenten gekauft werden. Die Interaktion mit solchen Geräten gestaltet sich so einfach, dass oftmals auch ältere Personen mit diesen spielen oder arbeiten. Insbesondere ältere Personen sind häufig gehandicapt, so haben sie oftmals Probleme kleinere Text zu lesen, wie sie häufig auf Fernbedienungen gedruckt sind. Ebenso neigen sie dazu, schnell überfordert zu sein, so dass gerade größere technische Systeme keine Hilfe sind. Wenn die Geräte mit Gesten steuerbar sind, sind die genannten Probleme oftmals vermeidbar. Um aber eine intuitive und einfache Gesteninteraktion zu ermöglichen, müssen entsprechend verständliche und nachvollziehbare Gesten unterstützt werden. Aus diesem Grund versuchen wir in diesem Paper intuitive Gesten für gängige Interaktionsszenarien an computerbasierten Systemen für den Einsatz in unterstützenden Umgebungen zu identifizieren. Im Rahmen der Evaluation sollen die Probanden hierfür ihre bevorzugten Gesten für die verschiedenen Interaktionsszenarien einbringen. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse kann später ein intuitiv bedienbares System, unter Verwendung eines beschleunigungssensorbasierten Geräts, entwickelt werden, mit welchem die Nutzer auf intuitive Weise kommunizieren können.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Frossard, Frédérique; Barajas, Mario; Obermüller, Marion; Moises, Monika; Nazemi, Kawa

RURALeNTER: Capacity Building through ICT in Rural Areas

2011

ICERI 2011. Proceedings

International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (iCERi) <4, 2011, Madrid, Spain>

The requirements on today's employees have been changed in the past. Today the western world needs significant more well educated employees, often named as experts. To be attractive for the job market the employees have to stay up-to-date and to improve their skills continuously, so lifelong-learning becomes important for the business carrier. But especially this advanced learning becomes difficult for people in rural regions. The existing strategies like improving skills on adult education centres is not appropriated for the rural population because of e.g. travelling costs. To solve this discriminating circumstance is the main goal of the RURALeNTER project. The project aims to develop a new approach how advanced education can be provided to the rural population by using modern technologies over internet. The effective use of specifically to the requirements of rural population developed internet tools enables even for beginners the possibility to be similar effective as the advanced training that is provided in urban regions in the traditional form. The resulting approach was tested and used amongst others in Spain, Austria and Romania.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Kuijper, Arjan

Search Intention Analysis for User-Centered Adaptive Visualizations

2011

Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Part I

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <6, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Searching information on web turned to a matter of course in the last years. The visualization and filtering of the results of such search queries plays a key-role in different disciplines and is still today under research. In this paper a new approach for classifying the search intention of users' is presented. The approach uses existing and easy parameters for a differentiation between explorative and targeted search. The results of the classification are used for a differentiated presentation based on graphical visualization techniques.

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Forster, Jeanette; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Semantische Visualisierung von Suchergebnissen auf der Basis von Linked Open Data

2011

Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2011

Semantisch annotierte Daten spielen eine immer wichtigere Rolle in zukünftigen Systemen zur Informationsdarstellung und Wissensaneignung. Besonders das Linked Open Data (LOD) Format erfährt in neuerer Zeit ein erstaunliches Wachstum. Trotz dieser Entwicklung werden die Vorteile semantischer Daten bisher von den wenigsten Internetanwendungen aufgegriffen. Diese Arbeit beschreibt einen neuen Ansatz zur benutzerzentrierten, datenadaptiven semantischen Visualisierung für Suchergebnisse aus Linked Open Data Anwendungen. Die erarbeiteten Konzepte machen von den Vorteilen semantischer Daten gebrauch, vereint mit der dynamischen Kombination von Darstellungstechniken aus dem Bereich der Informationsvisualisierung. Die Arbeit startet mit einer Beschreibung grundlegender Konzepte der Informationsvisualisierung, semantischer Daten und einer Diskussion über die Vor- und Nachteile von Visualisierungsmethoden speziell für semantische Daten. Im folgenden Kapitel werden aktuelle Methoden aus der Informationsvisualisierung vorgestellt und wichtige LOD-Systeme beschrieben. Der Vergleich und die Bewertung aktueller Anwendungen zur Visualisierung von semantischen Daten bilden den Kern dieses Kapitels. Danach folgt die Beschreibung des neuen Konzepts, das die charakteristische Struktur von LOD-Systemen mit den Vorteilen aktueller Visualisierungtechniken vereint. Das Ergebnis ist ein Visualisierungssystem, das die Komposition verschiedener Visualisierungstechniken an die zugrunde liegende Datenstruktur anpasst und so die Vorteile beider Bereiche miteinander verbindet. Die Beschreibung der Implementierung eines Prototypen folgt, an dessen Beispiel die Vorteile des neuen Systems erläutert werden. Die Zusammenfassung der erarbeiteten Konzepte zusammen mit einem Ausblick auf weitere Forschungsthemen, basierend auf den vorgestellten Ansätzen, schließen die Arbeit ab.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Kuijper, Arjan

SemaZoom: Semantics Exploration by Using a Layer-Based Focus and Context Metaphor

2011

Human Centered Design

International Conference on Human Centered Design (HCD) <2, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

The Semantic Web is a powerful technology for organizing the data in our information based society. The collection and organization of information is an important step for showing important information to interested people. But the usage of such semantic-based data sources depends on effective and efficient information visualizations. Currently different kinds of visualizations in general and visualization metaphors do exist. Many of them are also applied for semantic data source, but often they are designed for semantic web experts and neglecting the normal user and his perception of an easy useable visualization. This kind of user needs less information, but rather a reduced qualitative view on the data. These two aspects of large amount of existing data and one for normal users easy to understand visualization is often not reconcilable. In this paper we create a concept for a visualization to show a bigger set of information to such normal users without overstraining them, because of layer-based data visualization, next to an integration of a Focus and Context metaphor.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Kuijper, Arjan

User-Oriented Graph Visualization Taxonomy: A Data-Oriented Examination of Visual Features

2011

Human Centered Design

International Conference on Human Centered Design (HCD) <2, 2011, Orlando, FL, USA>

Presenting information in a user-oriented way has a significant impact on the success and comprehensibility of data visualizations. In order to correctly and comprehensibly visualize data in a user-oriented way data specific aspects have to be considered. Furthermore, user-oriented perception characteristics are decisive for the fast and proper interpretation of the visualized data. In this paper we present a taxonomy for graph visualization techniques. On the one hand it provides the user-oriented identification of applicable visual features for given data to be visualized. On the other hand the set of visualization techniques is enclosed which supports these identified visual features. Thus, the taxonomy supports the development of user-oriented visualizations by examination of data to obtain a beneficial association of data to visual features.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Fellner, Dieter W.

Approaches for 3D-Visualizations and Knowledge Worlds for Exploratory Learning

2010

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Proceedings [CD-ROM]

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN) <2, 2010, Barcelona, Spain>

Graphical knowledge representations open promising perspectives to support the explorative learning on web. 2D-visualization are recently evaluated as gainful knowledge exploration systems, whereas 3D-visualization systems did not find their way into web-based explorative learning. 3D-visualizations and "3D Knowledge Worlds", as virtual environment in context of e-learning, comprise a high degree of authenticity, because the used metaphors are known by the users from the real world. But different challenges like the usage of 3D-Knowledge World without losing the learning context and the focused learning goals are rarely investigated and considered. New technologies provide the opportunity to introduce 3D-visualizations and environments on web to support a web-based explorative learning. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the prospects of 3D-visualization for transferring and adopting knowledge on web. The following paper describes different approaches to use 3D-visualization and Knowledge Worlds for conveying knowledge on web-based systems using web-based contents. The approaches for 3D visualizations are classified into different layout algorithm and the knowledge worlds are classified interaction character.

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Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Benutzerzentrierte Visualisierung von Informationsempfehlungen basierend auf Recommender Systemen

2010

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2010

Immer häufiger werden Empfehlungssysteme eingesetzt, um den Benutzer bei der Suche nach Informationen oder Produkten im Internet zu unterstützen. Diese Systeme berechnen auf Basis erhobener Präferenzen des Benutzers für einige Informationsobjekte die Präferenzwertprognosen für andere Informationsobjekte. Der Erfolg solcher personalisierter Empfehlungssysteme ist jedoch stark abhängig von der Akzeptanz des Benutzers. Neben der Qualität der Empfehlungen ist die Nachvollziehbarkeit ein entscheidendes Kriterium für die Akzeptanz. Diese Nachvollziehbarkeit, wie es zu einer Empfehlung kommt, wird oft vernachlässigt. In manchen Systemen wird der Prozess textuell erläutert, was jedoch dem Ziel der Empfehlungssysteme widerspricht, die Aufmerksamkeit des Benutzers auf relevante Informationen zu fokussieren. Die Informationsvisualisierung ermöglicht den Prozess transparent und leicht erfassbar aufzuzeigen. Jedoch werden die Methoden der Informationsvisualisierung nur sehr bedingt zur Darstellung von Empfehlungen und des Empfehlungsberechnungsprozesses eingesetzt. Zur Steigerung der Akzeptanz von Empfehlungssystemen werden in dieser Arbeit die unterschiedlichen Prozesse der Empfehlungsberechnung untersucht, um angemessene Methoden der Informationsvisualisierung zur Darstellung dieser Prozesse zu identifizieren. Diese benutzerzentrierte Visualisierung gibt dem Benutzer einen einfachen, tiefergehenden Einblick in diesen Berechnungsprozess und steigert so die Nachvollziehbarkeit und damit die Akzeptanz. Dafür werden grundlegende Aspekte der Empfehlungsberechnungsprozesse recherchiert und analysiert. Zur Darstellung dieser Prozesse werden graphische Mittel der Informationsvisualisierung identifiziert. Existierende Systeme werden betrachtet und deren Einsatz der Informationsvisualisierung zur Darstellung der Empfehlungsberechnung untersucht. Das Resultat ist ein Konzept zur Entwicklung benutzerzentrierter Visualisierungen für Informationsempfehlungen. Das Konzept ist für unterschiedliche Anwendungsszenarien, Zielgruppen und Wissensräume entwickelt und kann auf verschiedene Varianten dieser ausgelegt werden. Das Konzept wird mittels einer prototypischen Implementierung als web-basierte Applikation evaluiert.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intelligent Exploration System - an Approach for User-Centered Exploratory Learning

2010

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. Proceedings [CD-ROM]

International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN) <2, 2010, Barcelona, Spain>

The following paper describes the conceptual design of an Intelligent Exploration System (IES) that offers a user-adapted graphical environment of web-based knowledge repositories, to support and optimize the explorative learning. The paper starts with a short definition of learning by exploring and introduces the Intelligent Tutoring System and Semantic Technologies for developing such an Intelligent Exploration System. The IES itself will be described with a short overview of existing learner or user analysis methods, visualization techniques for exploring knowledge with semantics technology and the explanation of the characteristics of adaptation to offer a more efficient learning environment.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Interaction Analysis for Adaptive User Interfaces

2010

Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications

International Conference on Intelligent Computing (ICIC) <6, 2010, Changsha, China>

Adaptive User Interfaces are able to facilitate the handling of computer systems through the automatic adaptation to users' needs and preferences. For the realization of these systems, information about the individual user is needed. This user information can be extracted from user events by applying analytical methods without the active information input by the user. In this paper we introduce a reusable interaction analysis system based on probabilistic methods that predicts user interactions, recognizes user activities and detects user preferences on different levels of abstraction. The evaluation reveals that the prediction quality of the developed algorithm outperforms the quality of other established prediction methods.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Interaction Analysis: An Algorithm for Interaction Prediction and Activity Recognition in Adaptive Systems

2010

IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Intelligent Systems. Proceedings

IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Intelligent Systems (ICIS) <2, 2010, Xiamen, China>

Predictive statistical models are used in the area of adaptive user interfaces to model user behavior and to infer user information from interaction events in an implicit and non-intrusive way. This information constitutes the basis for tailoring the user interface to the needs of the individual user. Consequently, the user analysis process should model the user with information, which can be used in various systems to recognize user activities, intentions and roles to accomplish an adequate adaptation to the given user and his current task. In this paper we present the improved prediction algorithm KO*/19, which is able to recognize, beside interaction predictions, behavioral patterns for recognizing user activities. By means of this extension, the evaluation shows that the KO*/19-Algorithm improves the Mean Prediction Rank more than 19% compared to other well-established prediction algorithms.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Fellner, Dieter W.

Intuitive Semantic-Editing for Regarding Needs of Domain-Experts

2010

ED-Media 2010

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Ontologies are used to represent knowledge and their semantic information from different topics, to allow users a better way to explore knowledge and find information faster, because of the data-structuring. To achieve a well filled knowledgebase, editors have to be used, to enter new and to edit existing information. But most of the existing ontology-editors are designed for experienced ontology-experts. Experts from other topic fields e.g. physicians are often novices in the area of ontology-creating, they need adequate tools, which hide the complexity of ontology-structures. In the area of e-learning experts are also teachers as well. In this paper we will present a method, how the needs of domain-experts can be regarded and so an editor can designed, which allows an editing and adding of information by users without having experiences of creating ontologies. With such an editor domain-experts are able to commit their expert-knowledge into the ontology.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Semantic Visualization Cockpit: Adaptable Composition of Semantics-Visualization Techniques for Knowledge-Exploration

2010

ICL 2010 Proceedings [CD-ROM]

International Conference Interactive Computer Aided Learning (ICL) <13, 2010, Hasselt, Belgium>

Semantic-Web and ontology-based information processing systems are established technologies and techniques, in more than only research areas and institutions. Different worldwide projects and enterprise companies identified already the added value of semantic technologies and work on different sub-topics for gathering and conveying knowledge. As the process of gathering and structuring semantic information plays a key role in the most developed applications, the process of transferring and adopting knowledge to and by humans is neglected, although the complex structure of knowledge-design opens many research-questions. The following paper describes a new approach for visualizing semantic information as a composition of different adaptable ontology-visualization techniques. We start with a categorized description of existing ontology visualization techniques and show potential gaps. After that the new approach will be described and its added value to existing systems. A case study within the greatest German program for semantic information processing will show the usage of the system in real scenarios.

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Stab, Christian; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Burkhardt, Dirk; Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Fellner, Dieter W.

SemaSun: Visualization of Semantic Knowledge Based on an Improved Sunburst Visualization Metaphor

2010

ED-Media 2010

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Ontologies have become an established data model for conceptualizing knowledge entities and describing semantic relationships between them. They are used to model the concepts of specific domains and are widespread in the areas of the semantic web, digital libraries and multimedia database management. To gain the most possible benefit from this data model, it is important to offer adequate visualizations, so that users can easily acquire the knowledge. Most ontology visualization techniques are based on hierarchical or graph-based visualization metaphors. This may result in information-loss, visual clutter, cognitive overload or context-loss. In this paper we describe a new approach of ontology visualization technique called SemaSun that is based on the sunburst visualization metaphor. We improved this metaphor, which is naturally designed for displaying hierarchical data, to the tasks of displaying multiple inheritance and semantic relations. This approach also offers incremental ontology exploring to reduce the cognitive load without losing the informational context.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa; Fellner, Dieter W.

SemaTime - Timeline Visualization of Time-Dependent Relations and Semantics

2010

Advances in Visual Computing. 6th International Symposium, ISVC 2010

International Symposium on Visual Computing (ISVC) <6, 2010, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

Timeline based visualizations arrange time-dependent entities along a time-axis and are used in many different domains like digital libraries, criminal investigation and medical information systems to support users in understanding chronological structures. By the use of semantic technologies, the information is categorized in a domain-specific, hierarchical schema and specified by semantic relations. Commonly semantic relations in timeline visualizations are depicted by interconnecting entities with a directed edge. However it is possible that semantic relations change in the course of time. In this paper we introduce a new timeline visualization for time-dependent semantics called SemaTime that offers a hierarchical categorization of time-dependent entities including navigation and filtering features. We also present a novel concept for visualizing time-dependent relations that allows the illustration of time-varying semantic relations and affords an easy understandable visualization of complex, time-dependent interrelations.

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Hofmann, Cristian Erik; Burkhardt, Dirk; Breyer, Matthias; Nazemi, Kawa; Stab, Christian; Fellner, Dieter W.

Towards a Workflow-Based Design of Multimedia Annotation Systems

2010

ED-Media 2010

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2010, Toronto, Canada>

Annotation techniques for multimedia contents have found their way into multiple areas of daily use as well as professional fields. A large number of research projects can be assigned to different specific subareas of digital annotation. Nevertheless, the annotation process, bringing out multiple workflows depending on different application scenarios, has not sufficiently been taken into consideration. A consideration of respective processes and workflows requires detailed knowledge about practices of digital multimedia annotation. In order to establish fundamental groundwork towards workflow-related research, this paper presents a comprehensive process model of multimedia annotation which results from a conducted empirical study. Furthermore, we provide a survey of the tasks that have to be accomplished by users and computing devices, tools and algorithms that are used to handle specific tasks, and types of data that are transferred between workflow steps. These aspects are assigned to the identified sub-processes of the model.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Dirk; Fellner, Dieter W.

Visualization Cockpit: Orchestration of Multiple Visualizations for Knowledge-Exploration

2010

International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning [online]

Semantic-Web technologies and ontology-based information processing systems are established techniques, in more than only research areas and institutions. Different worldwide projects and enterprise companies identified already the added value of semantic technologies, so they work on different sub-topics for gathering and conveying knowledge. As the process of gathering and structuring semantic information plays a key role in the most developed applications, the process of transferring and adopting knowledge to and by humans is neglected, although the complex structure of knowledge-design opens many research-questions. The customization of the presentation itself and the interaction techniques with these presentation artifacts is a key question for gainful and effective work with semantic information. The following paper describes a new approach for visualizing semantic information as a composition of different adaptable ontology-visualization techniques. We start with a categorized description of existing ontology visualization techniques and show potential gaps.

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Wibowo, Ferry Darmawan; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Visualization of Time-Dependent Semantics Data

2010

Darmstadt, TU, Bachelor Thesis, 2010

Time is an essential notion and common attribute in information science. Through the addition of the semantics structure on that information, it can turn out to be a powerful fundamental data in which the knowledge within in can be imparted. Nevertheless, this high potential capability is the contrary side that makes the development of adequate graphical interface even more arduously. Timeline is commonly used for addressing linear time-dependent data and applied as an excellent instrument to represent it. However, most timeline collide with the matter when they encounter a set of complex data, such as the semantics data. Following this further, this thesis proposes a new conceptual design to tackle the hindrances. It supports rich visualization by permitting dynamic hierarchy, cross concept relationships, meta-relationship, fast overview, scalability, and trend recognition. Moreover, the visualization concept is also geared with a set of interactions features which take the advantages of semantic technology to its fullest. It allows exploring the data through the time, distorting time, and generally brushes the data. Together, the major features in the proposed concept are realized through an implementation of prototype.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Cukusic, Maja; Granic, Andrina

eLearning 2.0 - Technologies for Knowledge Transfer in European-Wide Network of Schools

2009

Journal of Software

With the upcoming features of Web 2.0 current eLearning solutions, mostly characterized by single user and centered data-download, change and develop further. The traditional paradigm of classroom teaching and learning is broadened towards sharing experiences and knowledge in word-wide social communities. Furthermore, knowledge capturing in ambient environments gains more importance and the use of mobile devices has created rich and exciting learning opportunities. These aspects characterize the so-called eLearning 2.0. Different aspects of this paradigm shift are presented in this paper and the European Community supported UNITE project as an application case is offered. The technical aspects of the platform development cycle are provided and its enhanced eKnowledge repositories are addressed. The UNITE system implementation in the setting of one of the European-wide network of schools is presented as an iterative four-stage-process, the achieved results are discussed and future work is proposed.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Ullmann, Thomas Daniel; Hornung, Christoph

Engineering User Centered Interaction Systems for Semantic Visualizations

2009

HCI International 2009. Proceedings and Posters [DVD-ROM]

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <5, 2009, San Diego, CA, USA>

For intuitive interaction with semantic visualizations, gesture-based interaction seems a promising way. However, the development of such ensembles is costly. To cut down the engineering effort, we propose a development model for interaction systems with semantic visualizations. In addition, we provide a set of evaluation tools to support the interaction developer engineer evaluating the engineering process.

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Stab, Christian; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Interaktionsanalyse für adaptive Benutzerschnittstellen

2009

Darmstadt, TU, Diplomarbeit, 2009

Durch die immer weiter steigende Nutzung des Computers sowohl im privaten als auch im gewerblichen Kontext und der damit verbundenen steigenden Anzahl unterschiedlicher Nutzer zeichnen sich immer vielfältigere Eigenschaften jener Benutzer aus. Die heutigen Computernutzer unterscheiden sich nicht nur bezüglich des Alters, des Geschlechts und der Interessen, sondern auch durch die Arbeitsmethoden, die Vorkenntnisse und Erfahrungen im Umgang mit computerbasierten Systemen. Trotz der großen Unterschiede der Computernutzer besitzen die meisten Anwendungen eine statische Benutzerschnittstelle, die unter Einbeziehung softwareergonomischer Regeln und Erkenntnissen alle Anforderungen abdecken. Durch den Einsatz von adaptiven Systemen wird die Benutzerschnittstelle automatisch an die individuellen Bedürfnisse des Anwenders für dessen Unterstützung während seines Arbeitsprozesses angepasst. Für die Umsetzung eines solchen Systems werden Informationen über den Umgang des Benutzers mit dem Computersystem benötigt. Diese Benutzerinformationen können durch den Einsatz von Analyseverfahren aus Interaktionsereignissen, die als natürliche Konsequenz der Bedienung eines Computersystems entstehen, ohne Mithilfe des Benutzers extrahiert werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden Analyseverfahren und existierende Anwendungen vorgestellt und die Erkenntnisse aus der Recherche für die Entwicklung eines Interaktionsanalyse-Systems herangezogen. Das konzipierte System erfasst die Präferenzen eines Benutzers durch quantitative Auswertung der Interaktionsereignisse und ermöglicht die Abfrage der erfassten Präferenzen auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsstufen. Zudem werden Vorhersagen für das nächste Interaktionsereignis berechnet und Verhaltensmuster und -änderungen als weitere Information über den Benutzer erkannt. Durch die Bereitstellung des Systems als Serverkomponente für dessen Einsatz in verteilten Umgebungen und die für eine Vielzahl von Adaptionen verwendbaren Benutzerinformationen, ist das entwickelte Interaktionsanalyse-System für verschiedene Benutzerschnittstellen und Anwendungsszenarien einsetzbar. Zum Abschluss der Arbeit wird das entwickelte Interaktionsanalyse-System im Rahmen einer Evaluation und durch die Anbindung an eine Benutzerschnittstelle in einem realen Anwendungsszenario und im Vergleich zu anderen etablierten Methoden bewertet.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Breyer, Matthias; Hornung, Christoph

SeMap: A Concept for the Visualization of Semantics as Maps

2009

HCI International 2009. Proceedings and Posters [DVD-ROM]

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <5, 2009, San Diego, CA, USA>

The enhancement of the individual knowledge is a basic need that came up with changes in our society, whereas the process of learning disappears more and more. In the recent past the disappearance of a predefined learning process was named ambient learning, which came up to cope the changing need of every time and everywhere learning. Learning contents get more structure by new technologies like semantics, which specifies and defines more the semantic structure and with it the meaning of information. Users working with information system are confronted with different processes for getting the required information. The following paper introduces a new visualization technique, which uses the everyday processes of information search for imparting knowledge. The visualization technique utilizes the surplus of semantics to encourage the process of ambient learning.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa; Bhatti, Nadeem; Hornung, Christoph

Technology Support for Analyzing User Interactions to Create User-Centered Interactions

2009

HCI International 2009. Proceedings and Posters [DVD-ROM]

International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) <5, 2009, San Diego, CA, USA>

Alternative interaction devices become more important in the communication between users and computers. Parallel graphical User Interfaces underlay a continuous development and research. But today does no adequate connection exist between these both aspects. So if a developer wants to provide an alternative access over more intuitive interaction devices, he has to implement this interaction-possibility on his own by regarding the users perception. A better way to avoid this time-consuming development-process is presented in this paper. This method can easy implement by a developer and users get the possibility to interact on intuitive way.

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Hornung, Christoph; Granic, Andrina; Cukusic, Maja; Nazemi, Kawa

eKnowledge Repositories in eLearning 2.0: UNITE - A European-Wide Network of Schools

2008

Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2008

International Conference on Web-based Learning (ICWL) <7, 2008, Jinhua, China>

The upcoming Web 2.0 technologies change the aspects of eLearning fundamentally. The traditional paradigm of classroom teaching and homework learning will develop further towards sharing experiences and knowledge in word-wide social communities. Moreover, knowledge capturing in ambient environments gains more and more importance. These aspects characterize the so-called eLearning 2.0. This paper describes a prototype of an eLearning 2.0 system covering the different aspects such as platform, pedagogy and scenarios. The concepts presented here have been applied in the EU-project UNITE. The implementation of this system in the setting of a European network of fourteen schools is presented as an iterative four stage process, covering scenario planning and implementation, validation in addition to platform and process improvement. Achieved intermediate results from the first iteration of the implementation process are discussed and future work is presented.

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Burkhardt, Dirk; Nazemi, Kawa [Betreuer]

Gestenerkennung zur Unterstützung intuitiver Interaktion an computerbasierten Systemen

2008

Zittau/Görlitz, FH, Diplomarbeit, 2008

Moderne Technologien und Techniken eröffnen stetig neue Möglichkeiten Informationen im Web zu visualisieren. Dabei spielen immer mehr graphische Visualisierungen, die verbunden mit Modenamen wie etwa Rich Internet Applications (RIA) genutzt werden, eine bedeutende Rolle. Parallel zu dieser Veränderung im Web kann der wachsende Einsatz von alternativen Interaktionsgeräten beobachtet werden. Diese Interaktionsgeräte bieten durch die Nutzung vom natürlichen menschlichen Verhalten, wie etwa die Erkennung von Gesten, eine intuitivere Interaktionsmetapher. Der Vorstoß des Spielekonsolen-Herstellers Nintendo mit dem kostengünstigen, gestenbasierten Steuerungsgerät WiiMote verstärkte den Trend zu der Nutzung von alternativen Interaktionsgeräten. Obwohl diese beiden Technologien, zum einen die graphische Visualisierung von Informationen im Web und zum Anderen die Nutzung alternativer Interaktionsgeräte, unabhängig von einander eine rasante Entwicklung erfahren haben, existiert keine adäquate Verbindung zwischen Beiden. Die vorliegende Arbeit sieht daher als Ziel die Entwicklung einer Methode, gestenbasierte Interaktionsgeräte, insbesondere die WiiMote, mit web-basierten graphischen Visualisierungen zu vernetzen. Dazu werden zunächst theoretische Ansätze aus dem Bereich der Mensch-Computer-Interaktion betrachtet, die als Grundlage für die methodische Anwendung dienen soll. Ausgehend von den gewonnenen Erkenntnissen werden insbesondere Gesten als Interaktionsform betrachtet und vorgestellt. Der Vergleich unterschiedlicher Techniken zur Gestenerkennung soll für diesen Zweck die optimale Gestenerkennungsmethode identifizieren. Da die prototypische Umsetzung auf die WiiMote erfolgt, werden auch Merkmale und unterstützte Möglichkeiten dieses speziellen Interaktionsgerätes vorgestellt. Die gesammelten Erkenntnisse werden herangezogen, um eine adäquate Möglichkeit zur Verbindung dieses Gerätes mit grafischen Visualisierungen zu entwerfen. Auf Basis dieses Konzeptes folgt eine Beschreibung der technischen Umsetzung und der damit verbunden Hürden. Eine Beurteilung des Systems im Rahmen der Evaluierung schließt diese Arbeit ab.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Hornung, Christoph

Intuitive Authoring on Web: A User-Centered Software Design Approach

2008

Proceedings of ED-Media 2008

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2008, Vienna, Austria>

To motivate users to work with computer-based systems, to enhance their usage frequency, and to avoid that users get frustrated while working with computer-based systems, it is necessary to respond to the users as much as possible. User-centered software approaches try to assume all the wishes and demands of users. This paper presents a step-by-step introduction to a user-centered software development process. First, a definition of the term "intuitive" in the context of software development will be given. Furthermore, the development process will be explained as a combination of existing user-centered design processes. The implementation of an authoring tool in the European UNITE project, which uses the presented design approach, gives an insight into the development process and the results of the design approach.

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Nazemi, Kawa; Bhatti, Nadeem; Godehardt, Eicke; Hornung, Christoph

Adaptive Tutoring in Virtual Learning Worlds

2007

Proceedings of ED-Media 2007

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-Media) <2007, Vancouver, BC, Canada>

To enhance the learning success of the learners in the Virtual Learning Worlds (VLW) and effective of VLW, the aspects like precognition and learning aptitude of the learners play a key role. The constructivistic approach based VLW not only offers learning, but also great experience by exploring through reality based virtual worlds. VLWs can be extended with such a Learning Environment. They are Novices or Beginner and need more explanations and instructions to understand a topic and resolve a given problem. An Adaptive Tutoring System tries to find out the differences in precognitions and learning aptitudes and offers the learning task depending on these parameters. In the following paper a new system is designed for adapting a VLE to learners' need and presenting the learning tasks based on the recommended pedagogical approach.