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Hertlein, Anna-Sophia; Kuijper, Arjan [1. Review]; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina [2. Review]

Random Forests for Automatic Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Detection in CT Images

2020

Darmstadt, TU, Master Thesis, 2020

Sinusitis and other pathologies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are common diseases. Physicians need segmentations of the structures for diagnosis, operation planning, learning models and more. The current practice is manual or sometimes semi-automatic segmentation of the computed tomography (CT) scans. This time-consuming, tedious task is not practical for clinical routine. An automatic segmentation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity in CT images is therefore desirable, but extremely hard to accomplish because of the high variance and complexity of the structures. An often applied approach for difficult segmentation tasks is to use bounding boxes (BBs) of the structures as regions of interest (ROIs) to limit the search space for the segmentation to a small area in the image. This thesis therefore proposes a method for an automatic detection of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity in CT images that predicts axis-aligned bounding boxs (AABBs) of the structures. The BBs can then be used as ROIs in a possible subsequent segmentation. The relative locations of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are strongly regularized by the human anatomy. It therefore makes sense to use this knowledge for the localization of the structures of interest. Thus, a random forest (RF) is proposed, which performs a simultaneous regression of the BBs of all structures of interest. Thereby it implicitly learns the relative locations of the structures directly from the training data. Intensity based features that capture spatial relations are applied. For the detection of the paranasal sinuses the forest is trained on 71 and tested on 29 CT scans. A subset of 30 images of the dataset is furthermore used for the simultaneous detection of the paranasal sinuses, nasal conchae and nasal septum. The dataset contains images with many different resolutions and sizes, often pathologies are present. With a mean Intersection over Union (IoU) of 0.27 for detection of the paranasal sinuses and 0.21 for all structures at once, the results are still improvable. Though, in some cases good detection results are achieved. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed method is able to learn the relative positions of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses from the training data. This offers interesting potential for the detection of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

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Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Hartwig, Katrin; Hertlein, Anna-Sophia; Jung, Florian; Burmeister, Jan; Kohlhammer, Jörn; Wesarg, Stefan; Sauter, Guido

Web-based Prostate Visualization Tool

2020

Proceedings of the 2020 Annual Meeting of the German Society of Biomedical Engineering

Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik im VDE (BMT) <54, 2020, online>

Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering

Proper treatment of prostate cancer is essential toincrease the survival chance. In this sense, numerous studiesshow how important the communication between all stakeholders in the clinic is. This communication is difficult because of the lack of conventions while referring to the locationwhere a biopsy for diagnosis was taken. This becomes evenmore challenging taking into account that experts of differentfields work on the data and have different requirements. In thispaper a web-based communication tool is proposed that incorporates a visualization of the prostate divided into 27 segments according to the PI-RADS protocol. The tool provides2 working modes that consider the requirements of radiologistand pathologist while keeping it consistent. The tool comprisesall relevant information given by pathologists and radiologists,such as, severity grades of the disease or tumor length. Everything is visualized using a colour code for better undestanding.