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Venkatesh, Sushma; Zhang, Haoyu; Ramachandra, Raghavendra; Raja, Kiran; Damer, Naser; Busch, Christoph

Can GAN Generated Morphs Threaten Face Recognition Systems Equally as Landmark Based Morphs ? - Vulnerability and Detection

2020

IWBF 2020. Proceedings

International Workshop on Biometrics and Forensics (IWBF) <8, 2020, Porto, Portugal>

The primary objective of face morphing is to com-bine face images of different data subjects (e.g. an malicious actor and an accomplice) to generate a face image that can be equally verified for both contributing data subjects. In this paper, we propose a new framework for generating face morphs using a newer Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) - StyleGAN. In contrast to earlier works, we generate realistic morphs of both high-quality and high resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels. With the newly created morphing dataset of 2500 morphed face images, we pose a critical question in this work. (i) Can GAN generated morphs threaten Face Recognition Systems (FRS) equally as Landmark based morphs? Seeking an answer, we benchmark the vulnerability of a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf FRS (COTS) and a deep learning-based FRS (ArcFace). This work also benchmarks the detection approaches for both GAN generated morphs against the landmark based morphs using established Morphing Attack Detection (MAD) schemes.

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Drozdowski, Pawel; Rathgeb, Christian; Dantcheva, Antitza; Damer, Naser; Busch, Christoph

Demographic Bias in Biometrics: A Survey on an Emerging Challenge

2020

IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society

Systems incorporating biometric technologies have become ubiquitous in personal, commercial, and governmental identity management applications. Both cooperative (e.g. access control) and non-cooperative (e.g. surveillance and forensics) systems have benefited from biometrics. Such systems rely on the uniqueness of certain biological or behavioural characteristics of human beings, which enable for individuals to be reliably recognised using automated algorithms. Recently, however, there has been a wave of public and academic concerns regarding the existence of systemic bias in automated decision systems (including biometrics). Most prominently, face recognition algorithms have often been labelled as “racist” or “biased” by the media, non-governmental organisations, and researchers alike. The main contributions of this article are: (1) an overview of the topic of algorithmic bias in the context of biometrics, (2) a comprehensive survey of the existing literature on biometric bias estimation and mitigation, (3) a discussion of the pertinent technical and social matters, and (4) an outline of the remaining challenges and future work items, both from technological and social points of view.

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Raja, Kiran; Damer, Naser; Ramachandra, Raghavendra; Boutros, Fadi; Busch, Christoph

Cross-Spectral Periocular Recognition by Cascaded Spectral Image Transformation

2019

2019 Conference Proceedings

IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2019) <2019, Abu Dhabi, UAE>

Recent efforts in biometrics have focused on crossdomain face recognition where images from one domain are either transformed or synthesized. In this work, we focus on a similar problem for cross spectral periocular recognition where the images from Near Infra Red (NIR) domain are matched against Visible (VIS) spectrum images. Specifically, we propose to adapt a cascaded image transformation network that can produce NIR image given a VIS image. The proposed approach is first validated with regards to the quality of the image produced by employing various quality factors. Second the applicability is demonstrated with images generated by the proposed approach. We employ a publicly available cross-spectral periocular image data of 240 unique periocular instances captured in 8 different capture sessions. We experimentally validate that the proposed image transformation scheme can produce NIR like images and also can be used with any existing feature extraction scheme. To this extent, we demonstrate the biometric applicability by using both hand-crafted and deep neural network based features under verification setting. The obtained EER of 0.7% indicates the suitability of proposed approach for image transformation from the VIS to the NIR domain.

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Debiasi, Luca; Damer, Naser; Moseguí Saladié, Alexandra; Rathgeb, Christian; Scherhag, Ulrich; Busch, Christoph; Kirchbuchner, Florian; Uhl, Andreas

On the Detection of GAN-Based Face Morphs Using Established Morph Detectors

2019

Image Analysis and Processing - ICIAP 2019

International Conference of Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) <20, 2019, Trento, Italy>

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 11752

Face recognition systems (FRS) have been found to be highly vulnerable to face morphing attacks. Due to this severe security risk, morph detection systems do not only need to be robust against classical landmark-based face morphing approach (LMA), but also future attacks such as neural network based morph generation techniques. The focus of this paper lies on an experimental evaluation of the morph detection capabilities of various state-of-the-art morph detectors with respect to a recently presented novel face morphing approach, MorGAN, which is based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). In this work, existing detection algorithms are confronted with different attack scenarios: known and unknown attacks comprising different morph types (LMA and MorGAN). The detectors’ performance results are highly dependent on the features used by the detection algorithms. In addition, the image quality of the morphed face images produced with the MorGAN approach is assessed using well-established no-reference image quality metrics and compared to LMA morphs. The results indicate that the image quality of MorGAN morphs is more similar to bona fide images compared to classical LMA morphs.

978-3-030-30644-1

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Dantcheva, Antitza [Ed.]; Rathgeb, Christian [Ed.]; Uhl, Andreas [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2017

2017

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <16, 2017, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-270

Biometrics provides efficient and reliable solutions to recognize individuals. With increasing number of identity theft and misuse incidents we do observe a significant fraud in e-commerce and thus growing interests on trustworthiness of person authentication. Nowadays we find biometric applications in areas like border control, national ID cards, e-banking, e-commerce, e-health etc. Large-scale applications such as the European Union Smart-Border Concept, the Visa Information System (VIS) and Unique Identification (UID) in India require high accuracy and also reliability, interoperability, scalability and usability. Many of these are joint requirements also for forensic applications. Multimodal biometrics combined with fusion techniques can improve recognition performance. Efficient searching or indexing methods can accelerate identification efficiency. Additionally, quality of captured biometric samples can strongly influence the performance. Moreover, mobile biometrics is an emerging area and biometrics based smartphones can support deployment and acceptance of biometric systems. However, concerns about security and privacy cannot be neglected. The relevant techniques in the area of presentation attack detection (liveness detection) and template protection are about to supplement biometric systems, in order to improve fake resistance, prevent potential attacks such as cross matching, identity theft etc. BIOSIG 2017 addresses these issues and will present innovations and best practices that can be transferred into future applications. Once again a platform for international experts' discussions on biometrics research and the full range of security applications is offered to you.

978-3-88579-664-0

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Rathgeb, Christian [Ed.]; Uhl, Andreas [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2016

2016

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <15, 2016, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-245

978-3-88579-654-1

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Rathgeb, Christian [Ed.]; Uhl, Andreas [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2015

2015

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <14, 2015, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-245

Biometrics provides efficient and reliable solutions to recognize individuals. With increasing number of identity theft and misuse incidents we do observe a significant fraud in e-commerce and thus growing interests on trustworthiness of person authentication. Mobile biometrics is an emerging area and biometrics based smartphones can support deployment and acceptance of biometric systems. However concerns about security and privacy cannot be neglected. The relevant techniques in the area of presentation attack detection (liveness detection) and template protection are about to supplement biometric systems, in order to improve fake resistance, prevent potential attacks such as cross matching, identity theft etc. BIOSIG 2015 offers you once again a platform for international experts' discussions on biometrics research and the full range of security applications.

978-3-88579-639-8

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Maul, Fabian; Busch, Christoph [Referent]; Damer, Naser [Betreuer]

Multi-Biometric Continuous Authentication

2015

Darmstadt, Hochschule, Master Thesis, 2015

Biometric recognition can be used to secure the access to a system, by recognizing individuals seeking access, based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. In some scenarios, this level of security is not high enough, since it leaves room for attackers to gain access to the system after the initial recognition. Continuous authentication can be used to solve this problem by monitoring the current user during the work session. A genuine user with legitimate access should not be interrupted during the working session. Thus, biometric characteristics which require interaction with sensors are not suited for continuous authentication systems. As a consequence, research has been focused on behavioural biometric characteristics. A trust model defines the behaviour of the continuous authentication system by describing how actions of the user affect the trust value. Decisions are based on this trust value. This work aims to research whether a trust model can be used to combine a biological biometric characteristic and a behavioural characteristic, namely face recognition as the biological component and keystroke dynamics as the behavioural component. Face recognition was chosen because it does neither require additional interaction with a sensor, nor does it interrupt the work session of the genuine user. In order to lessen the impact on the privacy of the user, it was decided to use periodically taken pictures from a webcam instead of a permanent video surveillance. This added the challenge of the information collected by the system being asynchronous. The goal of this work is to develop and evaluate the feasibility and performance of such a system. In order to evaluate this proposed system a database of biometric data suitable for the application scenario was collected and a prototype of the system developed. Face recognition was implemented by using a Local Binary Linear Discriminant Analysis (LBLDA), for keystroke dynamics, a statistical method was implemented. Results show clear improvements in one metric, while the results in the other three measured metrics fell in a range between those of the unfused components. However, results can be further improved by using a more sophisticated fusion approach and tuning the sub components.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2014

2014

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <13, 2014, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-230

Biometrics provides efficient and reliable solutions to recognize individuals. With increasing number of identity theft and misuse incidents we do observe a significant fraud in e-commerce and thus growing interests on trustworthiness of person authentication. Nowadays we find biometric applications in areas like border control, national ID cards, e-banking, e-commerce, e-health etc. Large-scale applications such as the European Union Visa Information System (VIS) and Unique Identification (UID) in India require high accuracy and also reliability, interoperability, scalability, system reliability and usability. Many of these are joint requirements also for forensic applications. Multimodal biometrics combined with fusion techniques can improve recognition performance. Efficient searching or indexing methods can accelerate identification efficiency. Additionally, quality of captured biometric samples can strongly influence the performance. BIOSIG 2014 offers you once again a platform for international experts' discussions on biometrics research and the full range of security applications.

978-3-88579-624-4

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Siegmund, Dirk; Busch, Christoph [Supervisor]; Damer, Naser [Supervisor]

Prototypical Development of an In-Shop Advertisment System using Body Dimension Recognition

2014

Darmstadt, Hochschule, Master Thesis, 2014

This thesis outlines a system created to give consumers in the fashion industry an idea of how an item of clothing will look on them before trying it on. In the form of a short video, items of clothing are projected virtually onto an image of the user. Through the use of this system, retailers and manufacturers have the chance to immediately display their clothes on potential customers.

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Samartzidis, Timotheos; Busch, Christoph [Supervisor]; Damer, Naser [Supervisor]

Three Dimensional Scanning of Clothes, for Simulation and Presentation Purposes in a Virtual Fitting Room

2014

Darmstadt, Hochschule, Master Thesis, 2014

The aim of this thesis is to develop a low-cost semi-professional automated 3D scanning and post-production system for digitizing clothing and apparel for in shop and online presentation purposes. Ultimately giving birth to a database of digitized 3d models of apparel to enable virtual-fitting rooms and real-time fitting feedback. In the first part different scanning methods are tested if they are suited for scanning apparel and if the quality is good enough for advertisement and presentation purposes. The cost of the system is also taken into account. The thesis then identifies the best and most cost effective approach and tries to develop and automate the method using state of the art consumer products. In the main section the thesis describes the functionality of the method and how it can be applied. Different algorithms and workflows are shown and combined to develop the automated system. In conclusion the thesis describes and summarizes the system and opens up how it could be implemented in a consumer oriented presentation like a virtual fitting room or an online shopping style advisor using the users body-metrics.

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Siegmund, Dirk; Samartzidis, Timotheos; Damer, Naser; Nouak, Alexander; Busch, Christoph

Virtual Fitting Pipeline: Body Dimension Recognition, Cloth Modeling, and On-Body Simulation

2014

VRIPHYS 14: 11th Workshop in Virtual Reality Interactions and Physical Simulations

International Workshop in Virtual Reality Interaction and Physical Simulations (VRIPHYS) <11, 2014, Bremen, Germany>

This paper describes a solution for 3D clothes simulation on human avatars. The proposed approach consists of three parts, the collection of anthropometric human body dimensions, cloths scanning, and the simulation on 3D avatars. The simulation and human machine interaction has been designed for application in a passive In- Shop advertisement system. All parts have been evaluated and adapted under the aim of developing a low-cost automated scanning and post-production system. Human body dimension recognition was achieved by using a landmark detection based approach using both two 2D and 3D cameras for front and profile images. The human silhouettes extraction solution based on 2D images is expected to be more robust to multi-textured background surfaces than existing solutions. Eight measurements corresponding to the norm of body dimensions defined in the standard EN-13402 were used to reconstruct a 3D model of the human body. The performance is evaluated against the ground-truth of our newly acquired database. For 3D scanning of clothes, different scanning methods have been evaluated under apparel, quality and cost aspects. The chosen approach uses state of the art consumer products and describes how they can be combined to develop an automated system. The scanned cloths can be later simulated on the human avatars, which are created based on estimation of human body dimensions. This work concludes with software design suggestions for a consumer oriented solution such as a virtual fitting room using body metrics. A number of future challenges and an outlook for possible solutions are also discussed.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2013

2013

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <12, 2013, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-212

The proceedings of the BIOSIG 2013 include scientific contributions of the annual conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) of the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI). The conference took place in Darmstadt, 04. - 06. September 2013. Within two days mainly the advances of biometrics research and new developments in the biometric application fields beyond security applications have been presented and discussed by biometrics and security professionals.

978-3-88579-606-0

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Busch, Christoph; Brömme, Arslan; Pflug, Anika; Zhou, Xuebing; Dose, Michael; Weber, Frank; Opel, Alexander; Neugebauer, Peter J.; Leowsky, Katja

Multi-Biometrische Gesichtserkennung

2013

Informationssicherheit stärken - Vertrauen in die Zukunft schaffen

Deutscher IT-Sicherheitskongress <13, 2013, Bonn, Germany>

Die Gesichtserkennung ist eine unverzichtbare Methode bei der polizeilichen Personenidentifizierung. Die bisherige zweidimensionale Gesichtserkennung hat jedoch noch einige Hindernisse zu überwinden. Dies ist insbesondere dann der Fall, wenn die Identifizierung von Personen auf Foto- bzw. Videoaufnahmen, die in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit einer Straftat stehen, erfolgen soll und das Gesicht nicht in einer Frontalansicht aufgenommen wurde. Das Ziel des Projekts GES-3D ist es, ein datenschutzkonformes, einfach zu nutzendes multi-biometrisches System für die Identifizierung von Straftatverdächtigen aus Foto- bzw. Videodaten unter Einsatz von 3D-Gesichtsbilddaten zu erarbeiten. Mit diesem neuartigen Werkzeug sollen die Ermittlungsbeamten bei ihrer Arbeit unterstützt werden, indem eine Identifizierung auch aus partiellen Gesichtsbildaufnahmen mit minderer Bildqualität ermöglicht wird.

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Wayman, James; McIver, Rene; Waggett, Peter; Clarke, Stephen; Mizoguchi, Masanori; Busch, Christoph; Delvaux, Nicolas; Zudenko, Andrey

Vocabulary Harmonisation for Biometrics: the Development of ISO/IEC 2382 Part 37

2013

IET Biometrics

This study discusses a 10-year effort by Standards Committee 37 of the International Organisation for Standardisation / International Electrotechnical Commission Joint Technical Committee 1 (ISO/IEC JTC1 SC37) to create a systematic vocabulary for the field of 'biometrics' based on international standards for vocabulary development. That process has now produced a new International Standard (ISO/IEC 2382-37:2012), which conceptualises and defines 121 terms that are most central to the proposed field. This study will review some of the philosophical and operational principles of vocabulary development within SC37, present 11 of the most commonly used standardised terms with their definitions and discuss some of the conceptual changes implicit in the new vocabulary.

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Aabrandt, Andreas; Olsen, Martin Aastrup; Busch, Christoph

A Topology Based Approach to Categorization of Fingerprint Images

2012

BIOSIG 2012

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <11, 2012, Darmstadt, Germany>

This paper discusses the use of betti numbers to characterize fingerprint and iris images. The goal is to automatically separate fingerprint images from nonfingerprint images; where non-fingerprint images of special interest are biometric samples which are not fingerprints. In this regard, an image is viewed as a triangulated point cloud and the topology associated with this construct is summarized using its first betti number - a number that indicates the number of distinct cycles in the triangulation associated to the particular image. This number is then compared against the first betti numbers of "n" prototype images in order to perform classification ("fingerprint" vs "non-fingerprint"). The proposed method is compared against SIVV (a tool provided by NIST). Experimental results on fingerprint and iris databases demonstrate the potential of the scheme.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2012

2012

Köllen

Annual International Conference of the Biometrics Special Interest Group (BIOSIG) <11, 2012, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-196

The proceedings of the BIOSIG 2012 include scientific contributions of the annual conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) of the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI). The conference took place in Darmstadt, 06.-07. September 2012. Within two days mainly the advances of biometrics research and new developments in the biometric application fields beyond security applications have been presented and discussed by biometrics and security professionals.

978-3-88579-290-1

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Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Busch, Christoph

Retrieving Secrets from Iris Fuzzy Commitment

2012

The 5th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics 2012. Proceedings

IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB) <5, 2012, New Delhi, India>

Iris patterns contain rich discriminative information and can be efficiently encoded in a compact binary form. These nice properties allow smooth integration with the fuzzy commitment scheme. Instead of storing iris codes directly, a random secret can be derived such that user privacy can be preserved. Despite the successful implementation, the dependency existing in iris codes can strongly reduce the security of fuzzy commitment. This paper shows that the distribution of iris codes complies with the Markov model. Additionally, an algorithm retrieving secrets from the iris fuzzy commitment scheme is proposed. The experimental results show that with knowledge of the iris distribution secrets can be recovered with low complexity. This work shows that distribution analysis is essential for security assessment of fuzzy commitment. Ignoring the dependency of binary features can lead to overestimation of the security.

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Busch, Christoph; Korte, Ulrike; Abt, Sebastian; Böhm, Christian; Färber, Ines; Fries, Sergej; Merkle, Johannes; Nickel, Claudia; Nouak, Alexander; Opel, Alexander; Oswald, Annahita; Seidl, Thomas; Wackersreuther, Bianca; Wackersreuther, Peter; Zhou, Xuebing

Biometric Template Protection

2011

Datenschutz & Datensicherheit

Biometrische Systeme sind zwar technisch weit ausgereift und bieten heute Erkennungsleistungen, die noch vor 10 Jahren unerreichbar waren. Jedoch ist ein weit verbreiteter Einsatz von biometrischen Authentisierungsverfahren durch Bedenken hinsichtlich des notwendigen Schutzes von Referenzdaten gebremst. Eine sichere und datenschutzfreundliche Verarbeitung von biometrischen Daten wird möglich, wenn Template Protection Verfahren zum Einsatz kommen. Diese Verfahren wurden in einer wissenschaftlichen Studie (BioKeyS-Pilot-DB Teil 2) des Bundesamtes für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik (BSI) untersucht. Dieser Artikel berichtet über die Ergebnisse im Projekt. Er zeigt auf, wie Mechanismen zum Schutz von biometrischen Daten mit Zusatzinformationen z.B. Passwörtern verknüpft und wie die Verfahren auch in Identifikationssystemen eingesetzt werden können.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2011

2011

Köllen

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <9, 2011, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-191

The proceedings of the BIOSIG 2011 include scientific contributions of the annual conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) of the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI). The conference took place in Darmstadt, 08.-09. September 2011. Within two days mainly the advances of biometrics research and new developments in the biometric application fields beyond security applications have been presented and discussed by biometrics and security professionals.

978-3-88579-285-7

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Zhou, Xuebing; Opel, Alexander; Korte, Ulrike; Merkle, Johannes; Busch, Christoph

Enhanced Template Protection with Passwords for Fingerprint Recognition

2011

3rd International Workshop on Security and Communication Networks. Proceedings

International Workshop on Security and Communication Networks (IWSCN) <3, 2011, Gjøvik, Norway>

Template protection is an important supplementary to biometric system for enhancing security and privacy protection. Its recognition and security performance is limited by inherent properties of the biometric modalities and the biometric systems used. Combining additional secret information such as PIN or password will be a promising way to improve the performance. The fuzzy vault is a widely-used cryptographic scheme to protect fingerprint minutiae. In this paper, we propose a novel method, which generates artificial minutiae from a PIN or password. A fused feature set including genuine and artificial minutiae is used to generate a protected template. The insertion of artificial minutiae increases the secret length as well as the robustness in the fuzzy vault. Our experimental results on the NIST SD 14 database show that both false match rate and false non-match rate are reduced in comparison with the original fuzzy vault method. Meanwhile, the crucial security factors such as the degree of the polynomial and the length of secret are enlarged. Additionally, the original method is vulnerable to linkage attacks. The proposed method improves the resistance against this attack.

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Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Veldhuis, Raymond; Busch, Christoph

Quantifying Privacy and Security of Biometric Fuzzy Commitment

2011

International Joint Conference on Biometrics 2011

International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB) <2011, Washington, DC, USA>

Fuzzy commitment is an efficient template protection algorithm that can improve security and safeguard privacy of biometrics. Existing theoretical security analysis has proved that although privacy leakage is unavoidable, perfect security from information-theoretical points of view is possible when bits extracted from biometric features are uniformly and independently distributed. Unfortunately, this strict condition is difficult to fulfill in practice. In many applications, dependency of binary features is ignored and security is thus suspected to be highly overestimated. This paper gives a comprehensive analysis on security and privacy of fuzzy commitment regarding empirical evaluation. The criteria representing requirements in practical applications are investigated and measured quantitatively in an existing protection system for 3D face recognition. The evaluation results show that a very significant reduction of security and enlargement of privacy leakage occur due to the dependency of biometric features. This work shows that in practice, one has to explicitly measure the security and privacy instead of trusting results under non-realistic assumptions.

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Kevenaar, Tom; Korte, Ulrike; Merkle, Johannes; Niesing, Matthias; Ihmor, Heinrich; Busch, Christoph; Zhou, Xuebing

A Reference Framework for the Privacy Assessment of Keyless Biometric Template Protection Systems

2010

BIOSIG 2010

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <8, 2010, Darmstadt, Germany>

Over the past decades, a number of methods have been reported in the scientific literature to protect the privacy of biometric information stored in biometric systems. Keyless Biometric Template Protection (KBTP) methods aim to protect biometric information without the use of long-term secrets by deploying one-way functions. These KBTP methods are currently developed to an extent that commercial products have become available. When assessing and comparing different KBTP methods it is important to have a common and generic approach. Therefore, in this paper we present a reference framework that can be used in assessing and comparing the privacy properties of KBTP systems.

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Busch, Christoph; Abt, Sebastian; Nickel, Claudia; Korte, Ulrike; Zhou, Xuebing

Biometrische Template-Protection-Verfahren und Interoperabilitätsstrategien

2010

Sicherheit 2010

Jahrestagung Fachbereich Sicherheit der Gesellschaft für Informatik (SICHERHEIT) <5, 2010, Berlin, Germany>

Biometrische Authentisierung wird häufig zur Verbesserung der Identitätsverifikation eingesetzt. Durch die Nutzung biometrischer Verfahren entstehen neue Herausforderungen an den Schutz der Privatsphäre betroffener Personen. In biometrischen Systemen gespeicherte Referenzdaten enthalten Informationen, die aus den biometrischen Charakteristika einer Person abgeleitet wurden. Das Speichern von Abbildern einer biometrischen Charakteristik (z.B. Fingerbilder) in einer Datenbank ist aus Datenschutzsicht ungeeignet, da die Charakteristik selbst nach einer etwaigen Korrumpierung der Datenbank nicht ersetzt werden kann. Des Weiteren ist die Anzahl der biometrischen Charakteristika eines Nutzers begrenzt. Biometrische Merkmale werden z.B. aus einem Fingerbild extrahiert und in einem Template gespeichert. Eine Mehrfachnutzung von Templates in verschiedenen Anwendungen kann zu sog. Cross-Matching-Problemen führen, wenn Anwendungen miteinander verknüpft werden. Darüber hinaus können Referenzdaten für die Authentisierung irrelevante Informationen enthalten (z.B. ethnische Zugehörigkeit, Krankheiten). Zur Lösung dieser Herausforderungen hat sich mit den Template-Protection-Verfahren eine Technologie entwickelt, die den Anforderungen des Datenschutzes gerecht wird. Offene Systeme erfordern jedoch die Möglichkeit zum Austausch von interoperablen Referenzdatensätzen. Dieser Beitrag betrachtet daher Sicherheitsanforderungen an biometrische Systeme, behandelt die aktuellen Standardisierungsbemühungen.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2010

2010

Köllen

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <8, 2010, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-164

The proceedings of the BIOSIG 2010 include scientific contributions of the annual conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) of the Gesellschaft für Informatik (GI). The conference took place in Darmstadt, 09.-10. September 2010. Within two days mainly the advances of biometrics research and new developments in the biometric application fields beyond security applications have been presented and discussed by biometrics and security professionals.

978-3-88579-258-1

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Zhou, Xuebing; Kuijper, Arjan; Busch, Christoph

Template Protection for 3D Face Recognition

2010

Face Recognition

The human face is one of the most important biometric modalities for automatic authentication. Three-dimensional face recognition exploits facial surface information. In comparison to illumination based 2D face recognition, it has good robustness and high fake resistance, so that it can be used in high security areas. Nevertheless, as in other common biometric systems, potential risks of identity theft, cross matching and exposure of privacy information threaten the security of the authentication system as well as the user's privacy. As a crucial supplementary of biometrics, the template protection technique can prevent security leakages and protect privacy. In this chapter, we show security leakages in common biometric systems and give a detailed introduction on template protection techniques. Then the latest results of template protection techniques in 3D face recognition systems are presented. The recognition performances as well as the security gains are analyzed.

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Nickel, Claudia; Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph

Template Protection for Biometric Gait Data

2010

BIOSIG 2010

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <8, 2010, Darmstadt, Germany>

Biometric gait recognition is a well suited method for authentication on mobile devices as it is unobtrusive and concurrent. Hence, in contrast to PIN authentication it is no extra-effort for the user. The characteristic gait of a subject can be recorded using accelerometers which are nowadays already contained in many mobile devices. From this data biometric feature vectors can be extracted and stored as reference data on the device. Only if the user is not recognized by his walk an active authentication via PIN is necessary. As the number of attacks on mobile devices increases it cannot be assumed that the data stored on the device is under constant control of the subject. Therefore, template protection techniques should be applied to secure biometric data. As biometric gait recognition is a new field of research no specific template protection methods have been developed so far. This paper describes a new method for securing biometric gait features based on histograms and using the earth mover's distance for comparison. The method is tested with gait data of 48 subjects recorded using a mobile phone and the results are compared to the ones obtained without template protection.

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Zhou, Xuebing; Wolthusen, Stephen; Busch, Christoph; Kuijper, Arjan

A Security Analysis of Biometric Template Protection Schemes

2009

Image Analysis and Recognition

International Conference on Image Analysis and Recognition (ICIAR) <6, 2009, Halifax, Canada>

Biometric features provide considerable usability benefits. At the same time, the inability to revoke templates and likelihood of adversaries being able to capture features raise security concerns. Recently, several template protection mechanisms have been proposed, which provide a one-way mapping of templates onto multiple pseudo-identities. While these proposed schemes make assumptions common for cryptographic algorithms, the entropy of the template data to be protected is considerably lower per bit of key material used than assumed owing to correlations arising from the biometric features. We review several template protection schemes and existing attacks followed by a correlation analysis for a selected biometric feature set and demonstrate that these correlations leave the stream cipher mechanism employed vulnerable to, among others, known plaintext-type attacks.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Hühnlein, Detlef [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2009

2009

Gesellschaft für Informatik

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <7, 2009, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-155

Years of research and development in biometrics and electronic signatures elapsed and still three main scientific questions based on biometric measurement data, knowledge, possession, time, and place are in need to be answered: 1. "Who can it be?" - based on partially available data 2. "Who is it for sure?" - based on fully available data 3. "Can it be misused?" - based on any available data Challenges are given in sufficient number in going to answer all three questions like you will see in this year's program.

978-3-88579-249-1

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Zhou, Xuebing; Wolthusen, Stephen; Busch, Christoph; Kuijper, Arjan

Feature Correlation Attack on Biometric Privacy Protection Schemes

2009

Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. Proceedings

International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP) <5, 2009, Kyoto, Japan>

Privacy protection techniques are an important supplementary of biometric systems. Their main purpose is to prevent security leakages in common biometric systems and to preserve the user's privacy. However, when cryptographic functions are used in the algorithms, randomness of biometric features is strictly required from the security point of view. This randomness is hard to achieve in many feature extraction algorithms, especially for those using the local information of biometric modality. In this paper we discuss privacy protection based on a fuzzy extractor. We show that the security of the algorithm is strongly reduced when statistical properties of biometric features as well as the details of the algorithm are known. An attack exploiting feature correlation is demonstrated.

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Kelkboom, Emile; Zhou, Xuebing; Breebaart, Jeroen; Veldhuis, Raymond; Busch, Christoph

Multi-Algorithm Fusion with Template Protection

2009

IEEE Third International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems

IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS) <3, 2009, Washington, D.C., USA>

The popularity of biometrics and its widespread use introduces privacy risks. To mitigate these risks, solutions such as the helper-data system, fuzzy vault, fuzzy extractors, and cancellable biometrics were introduced, also known as the field of template protection. In parallel to these developments, fusion of multiple sources of biometric information have shown to improve the verification performance of the biometric system. In this work we analyze fusion of the protected template from two 3D recognition algorithms (multi-algorithm fusion) at feature-, score-, and decision-level. We show that fusion can be applied at the known fusion-levels with the template protection technique known as the Helper-Data System. We also illustrate the required changes of the Helper-Data System and its corresponding limitations. Furthermore, our experimental results, based on 3D face range images of the FRGC v2 dataset, show that indeed fusion improves the verification performance.

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Kelkboom, Emile; Breebaart, Jeroen; Veldhuis, Raymond; Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph

Multi-Sample Fusion with Template Protection

2009

BIOSIG 2009

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <7, 2009, Darmstadt, Germany>

The widespread use of biometries and its increased popularity introduces privacy risks. In order to mitigate these risks, solutions such as the helper-data system, fuzzy vault, fuzzy extractors, and cancelable biometries were introduced, also known as the field of template proteetion. Besides these developments, fusion of multiple sources of biometrie information have shown to improve the verification performance of the biometrie system. Our work eonsists of analyzing feature-level fusion in the context of the template proteetion framework using the helper-data system. We verify the results using the FRGC v2 database and two feature extraction algorithms.

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Nickel, Claudia; Busch, Christoph; Zhou, Xuebing

Template Protection via Piecewise Hashing

2009

Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. Proceedings

International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP) <5, 2009, Kyoto, Japan>

When biometric recognition is used for identification or verification it is important to assure the privacy of the data subject. This can be accomplished by using template protection mechanisms. These transform a feature vector that is derived from a data subject's biometric characteristic into a protected template (pseudo identity) and thus guarantee that no additional information such as health-related information is stored in the biometric reference. Due to noise, two biometric samples of one data subject are not the same and differ in some feature values (intra-class variations). This paper proposes a new template protection method which deals with these intra-class differences by applying cryptographic hash functions [10] in a step-wise manner to certain pieces of the biometric feature vector. This idea was inspired by Kornblum who proposed piecewise hashing for files in [7]. In this paper the method is applied to 3-dimensional facial data. The experimental results indicate that the biometric performance of the method is close to the biometric performance obtained without template protection.

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Busch, Christoph; Nouak, Alexander

3-D Face Recognition for Unattended Access Control

2008

Datenschutz & Datensicherheit

Biometric data have been integrated in all new European passports, since the Member States of the European Union started to implement the EU Council Regulation No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports. The additional integration of three-dimensional models promises significant performance enhancements for border controls. By combining the geometry-and texture-channel information of the face, 3-D face recognition systems provide an improved robustness while processing variations in poses and problematic lighting conditions when taking the photo. To assess the potential of three-dimensional face recognition, the 3D Face project, which is promoted by the EU Commission, was initiated in April 2006. This paper outlines the approach and research objectives of this project: not only shall the recognition performance be increased but also a new, fake resistant acquisition device is to be developed. In addition, methods for protection of the stored template data in the biometric reference are under development.

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Busch, Christoph; Nouak, Alexander

3-D-Gesichtserkennung für die unbeaufsichtigte Grenzkontrolle

2008

Sicherheit 2008

Jahrestagung Fachbereich Sicherheit der Gesellschaft für Informatik (SICHERHEIT) <4, 2008, Saarbrücken, Germany>

Seit November 2005 sind biometrische Daten in allen neu ausgestellten deutschen Reisepässen integriert. Die zusätzliche Nutzung von dreidimensionalen Modellen verspricht erhebliche Leistungssteigerungen für die Grenzkontrolle. Durch die Kombination von Informationen zur Geometrie sowie zur Gesichtstextur können 3-DGesichtserkennungssysteme Posenvariationen und schwierige Lichtverhältnisse bei der Aufnahme besser verarbeiten. Um das Potenzial der dreidimensionalen Gesichtserkennung zu ermitteln, wurde das durch die Europäische Kommission im 6. Forschungsrahmenprogramm geförderte Projekt 3D Face in Leben gerufen. Der Beitrag beschreibt den Ansatz und die Forschungsziele in diesem Projekt: So sollen nicht nur bessere Erkennungsleistungen erzielt, sondern auch eine neue, fälschungssichere Aufnahmetechnik entwickelt werden. Zudem wird an Verfahren gearbeitet, die gespeicherte Template-Daten in der biometrischen Referenz schützen.

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Zhou, Xuebing; Seibert, Helmut; Busch, Christoph; Funk, Wolfgang

A 3D Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-based Features

2008

Eurographics 2008 Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval

Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval (EG 3DOR) <1, 2008, Crete, Greece>

We present an automatic face recognition approach, which relies on the analysis of the three-dimensional facial surface. The proposed approach consists of two basic steps, namely a precise fully automatic normalization stage followed by a histogram-based feature extraction algorithm. During normalization the tip and the root of the nose are detected and the symmetry axis of the face is determined using a PCA analysis and curvature calculations. Subsequently, the face is realigned in a coordinate system derived from the nose tip and the symmetry axis, resulting in a normalized 3D model. The actual region of the face to be analyzed is determined using a simple statistical method. This area is split into disjoint horizontal subareas and the distribution of depth values in each subarea is exploited to characterize the face surface of an individual. Our analysis of the depth value distribution is based on a straightforward histogram analysis of each subarea. When comparing the feature vectors resulting from the histogram analysis we apply three different similarity metrics. The proposed algorithm has been tested with the FRGC v2 database, which consists of 4950 range images. Our results indicate that the city block metric provides the best classification results with our feature vectors. The recognition system achieved an equal error rate of 5.89% with correctly normalized face models.

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Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph

A Novel Privacy Enhancing Algorithm for Biometric System

2008

BIOSIG 2008. Proceedings

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <6, 2008, Darmstadt, Germany>

Biometrics provide the possibility of unique and convenient authentication. As its application areas grow rapidly, the problems, such as identity fraud and cross matching, threaten the security of biometric systems. Moreover, privacy concerns are associated with biometrics. In this paper we focus on privacy enhancing techniques for biometric systems, which can protect biometric information and enable using biometrics without exposure of privacy. A novel privacy enhancing algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is integrated in a 3D face recognition algorithm and tested using the FRGC database. By using the proposed algorithm, high security can be achieved as well as good verification performance.

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Breebaart, Jeroen; Busch, Christoph; Grave, Justine; Kindt, Els

A Reference Architecture for Biometric Template Protection Based on Pseudo Identities

2008

BIOSIG 2008. Proceedings

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <6, 2008, Darmstadt, Germany>

Biometric authentication is often considered to enhance identity verification. The use of biometrics also introduces new challenges to protect the privacy of the subjects while at the same time increasing the security of a verification system. In this paper, a set of requirements is proposed for biometric processing techniques to safeguard privacy and security. From these requirements, a reference architecture is derived that outlines processes and interfaces of biometric template protection methods in a high-level, technology-neutral way.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Hühnlein, Detlef [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2008. Proceedings

2008

Gesellschaft für Informatik

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <6, 2008, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-137

The advances of biomertrics research and progress of identity management with focus on applications of biometric border control and federated identity management were presented and discussed by professionals.

978-3-88579-231-4

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Franssen, Thomas; Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph

Fuzzy Vault for 3D Face Recognition Systems

2008

2008 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. Proceedings

International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP) <4, 2008, Harbin, China>

Biometric authentication methods are often being considered as a possible complement or even replacement of widely used password or token based authentication mechanisms. However, because of the fact that biometric traits are intrinsically tied to a person, several legitimate questions arise as biometric methods become more and more popular, such as the protection of personal information which is being gathered and stored alongside a biometric reference, the control of a possible connection of various biometric data of one user in different applications and the cancellation of compromised biometric data. Efforts that contain solutions for the problems which arise from these questions are being described as Template Protection Methods and are topic of current research. One method relies on protection of biometric data by a cryptographic concept named Fuzzy Vault. This paper specifically investigates the applicability of the concept to protect data used in three dimensional facial recognition. A prototype of that method has been implemented and checked for its ability to be adapted for use with data from 3D face scans.

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Welti, Paul; Suchier, Jean-Marc; Busch, Christoph

Improving Border Control with 3D Face Recognition

2008

BIOSIG 2008. Proceedings

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (SIG BIOSIG) <6, 2008, Darmstadt, Germany>

Biometric data have been integrated in all new European passports, since the member states of the European Commission started to implement the EU Council Regulation No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports. The additional integration of three-dimensional models promises significant performance enhancements for border controls. By combining the geometry- and texture-channel information of the face, 3D face recognition systems provide an improved robustness while processing variations in poses and problematic lighting conditions when taking the photo. To assess the potential of three-dimensional face recognition, the 3D Face project was initiated. This paper outlines the approach, research objectives and achievements of this project: Not only shall the recognition performance be increased but also a new, fake resistant acquisition device have been developed and are currently tested. In addition, methods for protection of the stored template data in the biometric reference are under development.

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Kevenaar, Tom; van der Veen, Michiel; Zhou, Xuebing; Busch, Christoph

Privacy for Biometric Identification Information

2008

Datenschutz & Datensicherheit

In the article, a privacy protection algorithm is introduced. The algorithm can prevent the risk of exposing or misusing biometric information. Additionally, it enables renew and revoke reference data. Moreover, the hash functions, error correction coding and random number generator are used so that numerous independent robust references can be generated from a biometric characteristic.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Hühnlein, Detlef [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2007: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures

2007

Köllen

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <5, 2007, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-108

978-3-88579-202-4

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Busch, Christoph; Nouak, Alexander

Das EU-Projekt "3D Face". 3-D-Gesichtserkennung für die unbeaufsichtigte Grenzkontrolle

2007

Innovationsmotor IT-Sicherheit

Deutscher IT-Sicherheitskongress <10, 2007, Bonn, Germany>

Seit November 2005 sind biometrische Daten in allen neu ausgestellten deutschen Reisepässen integriert. Die zusätzliche Nutzung von dreidimensionalen Modellen verspricht erhebliche Leistungssteigerungen für die Grenzkontrolle. Durch die Kombination von Informationen zur Geometrie sowie zur Gesichtstextur können 3-D-Gesichtserkennungssysteme Posenvariationen und schwierige Lichtverhältnisse bei der Aufnahme besser verarbeiten. Um das Potenzial der dreidimensionalen Gesichtserkennung zu ermitteln, startete im April 2006 das durch die Europäische Kommission geförderte Projekt 3D Face. Der Beitrag beschreibt den Ansatz und die Forschungsziele in diesem Projekt: So sollen nicht nur bessere Erkennungsleistungen erzielt, sondern auch eine neue, fälschungssichere Aufnahmetechnik entwickelt werden. Zudem wird an Verfahren gearbeitet, die gespeicherte Template-Daten in der biometrischen Referenz schützen.

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Busch, Christoph; Pinsdorf, Ulrich

Mobile Agenten im elektronischen Geschäftsverkehr

2007

Sicherheit und Rechtsverbindlichkeit mobiler Agenten

Dieses Kapitel führt in das in der Simulationsstudie untersuchte Konzept der mobilen Agenten ein. Es erklärt Vorteile der Technologie aus Sicht der Anwender. Speziell im Umfeld des mobilen Arbeitens und bei der Verarbeitung großer Datenmengen bieten sich Agenten als effiziente Methode an. Diese Vorteile werden der heute vorherrschenden Client-Server-Technologie gegenübergestellt.

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Zhou, Xuebing; Kevenaar, Tom; Kelkboom, Emile; Busch, Christoph; van der Veen, Michiel; Nouak, Alexander

Privacy Enhancing Technology for a 3D-Face Recognition System

2007

BIOSIG 2007: Biometrics and Electronic Signatures

Annual Conference of the Special Interest Group on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <5, 2007, Darmstadt, Germany>

2D Face images are traditionally used in civil governmental applications. An extension from 2D to 3D images will lead to several advantages when setting up automated authentication systems. However, privacy concerns of storing face images on smart cards or in databases will inhibit the acceptance of such systems. In this paper we concentrate on privacy enhancing technologies for biometric information where we focus on 3D face images. The feature vectors are obtained using a histogram-based approach and the privacy protected templates are generated based on fuzzy extractors. It is shown that the private face recognition system has an acceptable verification performance. Finally, it is described how the proposed system can be used in the setting of an ePassport.

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Busch, Christoph; Nouak, Alexander; Zhou, Xuebing; van der Veen, Michiel; Deravi, Farzin; Suchier, Jean-Marc

Towards Unattended and Privacy Protected Border Control

2007

Biometrics Symposium 2007

The Biometric Consortium Conference (BCC) <2007, Baltimore, USA>

Biometric data have been integrated in all new European passports, since the member states of the European Union started to implement the EU Council Regulation No 2252/2004 on standards for security features and biometrics in passports. The additional integration of three-dimensional facial models promises significant performance enhancements for border control applications. By combining the geometry- and texture-channel information of the face, 3D face recognition systems provide improved robustness while being able to handle variations in poses and problematic lighting conditions during image acquisition. To assess the potential of three-dimensional face recognition, the 3D Face Integrated Project was initiated as part of the European Framework Program for collaborative research in April 2006. This paper outlines the research objectives and the approach of this project: Not only shall the recognition performance be increased but also a new, fake-resistant acquisition system is to be developed. In addition, methods for protection of the stored template data in the biometric reference are under development to enhance the privacy and security of the overall system. The use of multi-biometrics is also a key feature of the 3D Face project addressing the performance, robustness and flexibility targets of the system.

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Busch, Christoph

Facing the Future of Biometrics

2006

Embo Reports

In the future, though, more and more people will be confronted with biometric systems, even if they are not at all widespread today. While according to the ICAO recommendations, from 2006 on biometric-enabled border control will be based on 2D face recognition technology, non-government applications can be foreseen. Biometric systems will enable access to security areas to be controlled more reliably. Examples include critical infrastructures particularly in need of protection, such as energy supply facilities, nuclear power stations, or computer centers of societal importance, such as emergency service control units. The advantage of biometric authentication is that it reduces the risk of information (passwords) or tokens (keys or chipcards) that are intentionally or unintentionally passed on to unauthorized persons and of access authorizations being stolen, because in contrast to knowledge-based or possession-based procedures, the biometric characteristics of an individual such as physical characteristics or patterns of behaviour are directly tied to a person - usually for the long term. The paper investigates chances and challenges of 2D- and 3D face recogntion.

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Yang, Bian; Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Niu, Xiamu; Sun, Shenghe

Approaching Optimal Value Expansion for Reversible Watermarking

2005

MM & Sec '05

Multimedia and Security Workshop (MM&Sec) <7, 2005, New York, NY, USA>

We investigate in this paper several recently proposed reversible watermarking algorithms based on value expansion schemes: bitshifting, histogram modification, spread spectrum, companding and prediction-error expansion, and present a general model - histogram expansion - for all value expansion based reversible watermarking algorithms, which demonstrates a unified view of these different algorithms and gives them a performance comparison in terms of watermarking distortion and embedding capacity from this unified view. With this general model of histogram expansion, performance of different value expansion algorithms can be evaluated and compared directly from their value expansion modes. A better value expansion mode has an advantage in performance from its inherent value expansion structure, which is stable to different input testing media. We deduce from this general model a formulated distortion estimation, which in form guarantees the existence of the optimal value expanding scheme for a specific media to be watermarked. The optimal value expansion can be achieved by optimization methods if the relevant computational complexity is permitted in practical applications. For simplicity, we propose a sub-optimal but efficient value expanding scheme to approach the best performance of reversible watermarking. In the later part of this paper, we investigate the possibility to further increase the performance by improving the histogram generating patterns in the sense of clearer separation of scale values in different ranges. All ideas proposed above are perfectly demonstrated in our experiments.

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Yu, Longjiang; Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Sun, Shenghe

Cumulant-based Image Fingerprints

2005

Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <7, 2005, San Jose, CA, USA>

A fingerprinting is related to cryptographic hash functions. In contrast to cryptographic hash functions this robust digest is sensitive only to perceptual change. Minor changes, which are not affecting the perception, do not result in a different fingerprint. This technique is used in content-based retrieval, content monitoring, and content filtering. In this paper we present a cumulant-based image fingerprinting method. Cumulants are typically used in signal processing and image processing, e.g. for blind source separation or Independent Component Analysis (ICA). From an image with reduced dimensions we calculate cumulants as an initial feature vector. This feature vector is transformed into an image fingerprint. The theoretical advantages of cumulants are verified in experiments evaluating robustness (e.g. against operations like lossy compression, scaling and cropping) and discriminability. The results show an improved performance of our method in comparison to existing methods.

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Funk, Wolfgang; Arnold, Michael; Busch, Christoph; Munde, A.

Evaluation of Image Compression Algorithms for Fingerprint and Face Recognition Systems

2005

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society Information Assurance Workshop. Proceedings

Annual IEEE SMC Information Assurance Workshop (IAW) <6, 2005, West Point, NY, USA>

A variety of widely accepted and efficient compression methods do exist for still images. To name a few, there are standardised schemes like JPEG and JPEG2000 which are well suited for photorealistic true colour and grey scale images and usually operated in lossy mode to achieve high compression ratios. These schemes are well suited for images that are processed within face recognition systems. In the case of forensic biometric systems, compression of fingerprint images has already been applied in Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) applica- tions, where the size of the digital fingerprint archives would be tremendous for uncompressed images. In these large scale applications Wavelet Scalar Qantization has a long tradition as an effective encoding scheme. This paper gives an overview of the study BioCompress that has been conducted at Fraunhofer IGD on behalf of the Federal Office for Information Security (BSI). Based on fingerprint and face image databases and different biometric algorithms we evaluated the impact of lossy compression algorithms on the recognition performance of biometric recognition systems.

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Voigt, Michael; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

High-capacity Reversible Watermarking for 2D-Vectordata

2005

Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <7, 2005, San Jose, CA, USA>

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Yang, Bian; Schmucker, Martin; Niu, Xiamu; Busch, Christoph; Sun, Shenghe

Integer DCT Based Reversible Image Watermarking by Adaptive Coefficient Modification

2005

Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VII

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <7, 2005, San Jose, CA, USA>

We investigate in this paper several possible methods to improve the performance of the bit-shifting operation based reversible image watermarking algorithm in the integer DCT domain. In view of the large distortion caused by the modification of high-amplitude coefficients in the integer DCT domain, several coefficient selection methods are proposed to provide the coefficient modification process with some adaptability to match the coefficient amplitudes' status of different 8-by-8 DCT coefficient blocks. The proposed adaptive modification methods include global coefficient-group distortion sorting, zero-tree DCT prediction, and a low frequency based coefficient prediction method for block classification. All these methods are supposed to optimize the bit-shifting based coefficient modification process so as to improve the watermarking performance in terms of capacity/distortion ratio. Comparisons are presented for these methods in aspects of performance in terms of capacity/distortion ratio, performance stability, performance scalability, algorithm complexity and security. Compared to our old integer DCT based scheme and other recently proposed reversible image watermarking algorithms, some of the proposed methods exhibit much improved performances, among which the low frequency based coefficient prediction methods bear highest efficiency to predict the coefficient amplitudes' status, leading to distinct improved watermarking performance in most aspects. Detailed experimental results and performance analysis are also given for all the proposed algorithms and several other reversible watermarking algorithms.

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Arnold, Michael; Busch, Christoph; Ihmor, Heinrich

Investigating Performance and Impacts on Fingerprint Recognition Systems

2005

IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society Information Assurance Workshop. Proceedings

Annual IEEE SMC Information Assurance Workshop (IAW) <6, 2005, West Point, NY, USA>

This paper presents a comparative study on fingerprint recognition systems. The goal of this study was to investigate the capability characteristics of biometric systems regarding integration of biometric features in personnel documents such as IDcards and Visa application documents. Thus the designed test has the focus on performance testing of selected algorithms and systems with dedicated investigations on side effects such as independence of matching rates and results from the scanning device or the impacts of ageing effects on the received operator characteristics. The study was carried out in close collaboration between German Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA), the German Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt fuer Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, BSI) and the Fraunhofer-IGD.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning; Salamon, René

Benchmarking of Face Recognition Systems

2004

National Homeland Security Conference [CD-ROM]

National Homeland Security Conference <2004, Orlando, FL, USA>

This article discusses the topic of testing and benchmarking biometric face recognition systems and it reports on the project BioFace, which has tested the limitations of using face recognition.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning

Biometrie - Sachstand und Ausblick

2004

Polizei, Verkehr und Technik

Der Beitrag führt in die biometrischen Verfahren ein und betrachtet die Einsatzmöglichkeiten für grenzpolizeiliche Zwecke. Biometrische Performanz, Überwindungssicherheit und Datenschutzaspekte werden diskutiert.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning; Rabung, Eva

Bodycheck: Authentisierung durch Biometrie

2004

Thema Forschung

Biometrie ist eine Art der Benutzerauthentisierung, bei der ein einzigartiges Körpermerkmal wie ein Fingerabdruck oder das Irisbild eine Identitätsfeststellung ermöglicht. Der Vorteil gegenüber anderen Authentisierungsmethoden - wie der von Passwörtern oder Schlüsseln beispielsweise - besteht darin, dass man seinen Finger oder sein Auge nicht vergessen, verlegen oder weitergeben kann. Biometrische Systeme haben in den letzten Jahren große Fortschritte gemacht. Nicht zuletzt aufgrund der erhöhten Sicherheitsbedürfnisse von Unternehmen und öffentlichen Stellen wird die Technik immer populärer. Vieles, was noch vor kurzem undenkbar gewesen wäre, ist heute durchaus möglich. Visionen, wie die vollautomatisierte Gesichtserkennung auf Videoszenen von Überwachungskameras zum Auffinden von Hooligans in Fußballstadien sind nicht mehr Fiktion, sondern bereits teilweise in Modellversuchen realisiert oder in naher Zukunft absehbar.

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Arnold, Michael; Dudzinski-Lange, Stefan; Busch, Christoph

Digital Watermarking und Digital Rights Management: Keine Chance für Datendiebe

2004

Fachjournalist

Raubkopien von Songs und Filmen, Missbrauch von Dokumenten, gar die unerlaubte Veröffentlichung von hochwertigen Partituren... Die Liste von Urheberrechtsverletzungen ist lang und ein milliardenschweres Problem für die Industrie. Modernste Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien schaffen hier Abhilfe. Dieser Artikel stellt digitale Wasserzeichen und das Digital Rights Management als möglichen effektiven Urheberrechtsschutz dar.

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Daum, Henning; Arnold, Michael; Busch, Christoph

Findings from the Projects BioFace and BioFinger

2004

Second BSI-Symposium on Biometrics 2004. Proceedings

Conference on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <2, 2004, Darmstadt, Germany>

This article presents findings from the projects BioFace and BioFinger that realized at the Fraunhofer-IGD, Darmstadt, Germany in 2003. Firstly it discusses the topic of testing and benchmarking biometric face recognition systems and it reports on the project BioFace, which has tested the limitations of using face recognition. This is followed by selected findings from the BioFinger project regarding the distinction of similar fingerprints, aging properties and reduced sample sizes.

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Ebinger, Peter; Busch, Christoph

Fraunhofer-IGD's Vision of AmI

2004

Workshop R&D challenges for Resilience in Ambient Intelligence

Workshop R&D challenges for Resilience in Ambient Intelligence (RAmI) <2004, Brussels, Belgium>

The vision of AmI (Ambient Intelligence) is an environment of co-operating smart things that offers a seamless environment of computing. AmI raises new challenges for research and development on the dependability, security and interdependencies of information infrastructures. New types of data can be collected because of advanced sensors and the loss of awareness about surveillance and data collection will progress. Data collection and surveillance will mostly be invisible in an AmI since computers disappear into the environment. The major goals of AmI are context-aware activity support (understanding what the user wants), unobtrusive, intuitive interaction and dynamic, ubiquitous infrastructures. AmI prototypes will provide actual data on how an AmI system can be built and how users will interact and accept this support and how security and reliability, privacy and anonymity can be achieved. A promising approach is the concept of mobile agents which allow a flexible delegation of user tasks, the interconnection of different AmI systems and has many benefits in a mobile environment with low bandwidth network connection.

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Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

Information Warfare: Threats to Critical Infrastructures

2004

Changing Threats to Global Security: Peace or Turmoil

International Amaldi Conference on Problems of Global Security <15, 2003, Helsinki, Finland>

The paper describes threats to critical infrastructures in the times of information warfare and cyberterrorism.

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Yang, Bian; Schmucker, Martin; Funk, Wolfgang; Busch, Christoph; Sun, Shenghe

Integer DCT-based Reversible Watermarking for Images Using Companding Technique

2004

Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <6, 2004, San Jose, CA, USA>

We present a high capacity reversible watermarking scheme using companding technique over integer DCT coefficients of image blocks. This scheme takes advantage of integer DCT coefficients' Laplacian-shape-like distribution, which permits low distortion between the watermarked image and the original one caused by the bit-shift operations of the companding technique in the embedding process. In our scheme, we choose AC coefficients in the integer DCT domain for the bit-shift operation, and therefore the capacity and the quality of the watermarked image can be adjusted by selecting different numbers of coefficients of different frequencies. To prevent overflows and underflows in the spatial domain caused by modification of the DCT coefficients, we design a block discrimination structure to find suitable blocks that can be used for embedding without overflow or underflow problems. We can also use this block discrimination structure to embed an overhead of location information of all blocks suitable for embedding. With this scheme, watermark bits can be embedded in the saved LSBs of coefficient blocks, and retrieved correctly during extraction, while the original image can be restored perfectly.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning

Online-Ticketing - Veranstaltungskarten aus dem Internet

2004

Electronic Business

Das Internet wird als Vertriebsweg von immer neuen Branchen entdeckt. Während Waren und Gegenstände nach dem Kauf dann immer verschickt werden müssen, ist dies bei Tickets wie Kino- oder Konzertkarten anders: Mit OnlineTicket bekommt man ein vollwertiges Ticket über das Internet übertragen, dass man nur noch ausdrucken und mitbringen muss. Man braucht keine Karten mehr mit einer Reservierungs- oder Bestellungsnummer abholen und dafür anstehen. Das Verfahren basiert auf der Verwendung von digitalen Signaturen. Die Veranstaltungsdaten werden digital signiert in einen Barcode verpackt. Dieser wird in ein Dokument integriert, das der Kunde nach dem Kauf übermittelt bekommt und ausdruckt. Beim Zutritt z.B. im Kino wird die Information aus dem Barcode wieder ausgelesen und die Signatur des Veranstalters geprüft. Durch weitere Sicherheitsmechanismen wird z.B. der Zugang durch eine Kopie des Tickets ausgeschlossen (Double-Spending). Das Verfahren ist vielseitig einsetzbar und anstelle des Papiertickets auch auf andere Informationsträger wie Chipkarte oder Flashspeicher anwendbar.

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Yang, Bian; Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Sun, Shenghe

Reversible Image Watermarking by Histogram Modification for Integer DCT Coefficients

2004

Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing [CD-ROM]

IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP) <6, 2004, Siena, Italy>

We present a reversible watermarking scheme which achieves perfect restoration of both the embedded watermark and the original image during extraction. The proposed scheme embeds data by modifying those integer DCT coefficients with peak amplitudes in each coefficient histogram. The integer DCT performed over the original image is a lossless 8X8 block transform with high energy concentrating ability, which guarantees reversibility and high capacity/distortion ratio for the proposed watermarking scheme. In addition, this scheme provides a wide quality (PSNR) range from around 40 dB to 60 dB for the watermarked image, and an inherent fine adjustment capability for the quality (PSNR). Some experimental results are presented to demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in terms of capacity and the quality of the watermarked image.

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Voigt, Michael; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

Reversible Watermarking of 2D-Vector Data

2004

Proceedings of the Multimedia and Security Workshop 2004

Multimedia and Security Workshop (MM&Sec) <2004, Magdeburg, Germany>

This paper presents a reversible watermarking scheme for the 2D-vector data (point coordinates) which are popularly used in geographical information related applications. This reversible watermarking scheme exploits the high correlation among points in the same polygon in a map and achieves the reversibility of the whole scheme by an 8-point integer DCT, which ensures that the original 2D-vector data can be watermarked during the watermark embedding process and then perfectly restored during the watermark extraction process, with the watermark accurately extracted at the same time. In our scheme, we use an efficient highest frequency coefficient modification technique in the integer DCT domain to modulate the watermark bit "0" or "1", which can be determined during extraction without any additional information to indicate. To alleviate the visual distortion in the watermarked map caused by the coefficient modification, we propose an improved reversible watermarking scheme based on the original coefficient modification technique. Combined with this improved scheme, the embedding capacity can be greatly increased while the watermarking distortion is otherwise deduced compared to the original coefficient modification scheme. To control the distortion between the watermarked 2D-vector data and its original version, we design an error estimation method to prevent those data which are able to cause large distortions in the coefficient modification process from being watermarked. This distortion limitation scheme can fine adjust the watermarking distortion and capacity for the proposed coefficient modification based reversible watermarking scheme according to different practical requirements.

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Busch, Christoph

The Biometric Landscape in Germany

2004

Second BSI-Symposium on Biometrics 2004. Proceedings

Conference on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <2, 2004, Darmstadt, Germany>

The paper describes the biometric landscape in Germany from several perspectives. It surveys the existing academic and industrial labs and stretches recent developments. Furthermore it characterizes the organizations dealing with Biometrics from both governmental or industrial driven.

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Busch, Christoph; Niu, Xiamu

Video Watermarking: Requirements, Problems and Solutions

2004

Intelligent Watermarking Techniques

This chapter will discuss the requirements and the problems of video watermarking in the video broadcasting case by following the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) Technical Requirements. We will review one of the first European Video Watermarking System, TALISMAN (Tracing Authors right by Labeling Image Service and Monitoring Access Network), which was capable of embedding and extracting invisible watermarks in real-time. While on the one hand the TALISMAN system proved to have satisfactory visual quality and robustness regarding compression on the other hand improvements were needed to meet the requirements of the EBU. We show results from our recent research and outline how our extended solution can cope with geometric distortions.

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Baier, Harald; Buchmann, Johannes; Busch, Christoph

Aus- und Weiterbildung in IT-Sicherheit

2003

IT-Sicherheit im verteilten Chaos

Deutscher IT-Sicherheitskongress des BSI <8, 2003, Bonn, Germany>

Wir stellen Inhalte, Adressatengruppen, Organisation und Angebote der Aus- und Weiterbildung in Deutschland vor.

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Salamon, René; Daum, Henning; Busch, Christoph; Pretzel, Andrew

Benchmarking of Face Recognition Systems - Project BioFace

2003

BIOSIG 2003. Proceedings

Conference on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <1, 2003, Darmstadt, Germany>

This article reports about the project BioFace, within the scope of which face recognition systems available to the market were tested. The main focus of the project was on the one hand side benchmarking of biometric face recognition algorithms operating on large scale datasets with approx. 50,000 test samples. On the other hand a system test was conducted to determine face recognition system capabilities in the detection of seeked persons from the videostream of a monitoring camera. This article describes database used in the investigation as well as concept and realization of the algorithm and system tests. First results of the tests are presented. The project is carried out in close collaboration between Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA), the Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, BSI) and the Fraunhofer-IGD.

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Brömme, Arslan [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

BIOSIG 2003. Proceedings

2003

Gesellschaft für Informatik

Conference on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <1, 2003, Darmstadt, Germany>

GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-31

3-88579-360-1

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Arnold, Michael; Daum, Henning; Busch, Christoph

Comparative Study on Fingerprint Recognition Systems - Project BioFinger

2003

BIOSIG 2003. Proceedings

Conference on Biometrics and Electronic Signatures (BIOSIG) <1, 2003, Darmstadt, Germany>

This paper describes a comparative study on fingerprint recognition systems - the project BioFinger. The goal of this study is to investigate the capability characteristics of biometric systems in the ongoing discussion regarding integration of biometric features in personnel documents such as IDcards and Visa application documents. Thus the designed test has the focus on performance testing of selected algorithms and systems with dedicated investigations on side effects such as independence of matching rates and results from the scanning device or dependability of received operator characteristics from aging effects. The project is carried out in close collaboration between Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA), the Federal Office for Information Security (Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, BSI) and the Fraunhofer-IGD.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning; Graf, Frank

Evaluierung von Gesichtserkennungssystemen - Projekt BioFace

2003

IT-Sicherheit im verteilten Chaos

Deutscher IT-Sicherheitskongress des BSI <8, 2003, Bonn, Germany>

Der Beitrag berichtet von den Erfahrungen des Projektes BioFace, bei dem marktgängige Gesichtserkennungssysteme getestet wurden. Der Schwerpunkt des Projektes lag zu einem in der Bestimmung der Leistungsfähigkeit von biometrischen Gesichtserkennungssystemen bei großen Datenbeständen mit ca. 50.000 Testpersonen und zum anderen bei Detektion von gesuchten Personen im Videostrom einer Überwachungskamera. Der Beitrag schildert die Erhebung der Datenbestände sowie Konzeption und Durchführung der Algorithmen- und Systemtests. Erste Ergebnisse der Tests werden präsentiert. Das Projekt wird in enger Zusammenarbeit zwischen BKA, BSI und dem Fraunhofer-IGD durchgeführt.

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Busch, Christoph; Schmucker, Martin

Evaluierung von Wasserzeichenverfahren

2003

IT-Sicherheit im verteilten Chaos

Deutscher IT-Sicherheitskongress des BSI <8, 2003, Bonn, Germany>

Seit den ersten Publikationen im Bereich digitaler Wasserzeichentechnologien wurde eine Vielzahl von Wasserzeichenverfahren implementiert, um digitale Daten mit digitalen Wasserzeichen zu versehen. Diese Algorithmen unterscheiden sich einerseits in Details andererseits in grundlegenden Ansätzen. Ein objektiver Vergleich existierender Algorithmen ist nötig sowohl für die Forschung als auch für die praktische Anwendung. Allerdings ist die manuelle Durchführung eines Vergleiches sehr komplex. Automatische Testverfahren sind deshalb sehr hilfreich und auch wichtig, um die große Anzahl von Einzeloperationen durchführen zu können. Wir legen in diesem Beitrag die Problematik der Evaluierung digitaler Wasserzeichenalgorithmen dar und weisen auf die Notwendigkeit eines objektiven, nachvollziehbaren und allgemein anerkannten Testverfahrens hin.

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Busch, Christoph; Schmucker, Martin

Evaluierung von Wasserzeichenverfahren

2003

KES

Seit den ersten Publikationen im Bereich digitaler Wasserzeichentechnologien wurde eine Vielzahl von Wasserzeichenverfahren implementiert, um digitale Daten mit digitalen Wasserzeichen zu versehen. Diese Algorithmen unterscheiden sich einerseits in Details andererseits in grundlegenden Ansätzen. Ein objektiver Vergleich existierender Algorithmen ist nötig sowohl für die Forschung als auch für die praktische Anwendung. Allerdings ist die manuelle Durchführung eines Vergleiches sehr komplex. Automatische Testverfahren sind deshalb sehr hilfreich und auch wichtig, um die große Anzahl von Einzeloperationen durchführen zu können. Wir legen in diesem Beitrag die Problematik der Evaluierung digitaler Wasserzeichenalgorithmen dar und weisen auf die Notwendigkeit eines objektiven, nachvollziehbaren und allgemein anerkannten Testverfahrens hin.

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Voigt, Michael; Busch, Christoph

Feature-based Watermarking of 2D-Vector Data

2003

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <5, 2003, Santa Clara, CA, USA>

This paper deals with the issue of watermarking 2D-vector data (point coordinates) which are used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The tolerance range of the coordinates is used to embed the information. As an embedding constraint no violation of the tolerance range at each point may occur. In the first step of our approach we lay a rectangular grid over the map, where the origin, the extension, and the subdivision of this grid is only known by the embedder. Based on a secret key we choose two disjunctive sets A and B of grid elements namely "patches". Now these selected elements are further divided into smaller subareas or "subpatches". In subpatches belonging to set A the distances of points to a reference line within each subpatch are decreased while the distances of subpatches of set B are unchanged. In the retrieving procedure we consider all subpatches belonging to the sets A and B and calculate for each of the two sets their sample variance. The decision whether the map is watermarked with a certain key or not is based on this feature and is made with the help of a hypothesis test. The proposed method is robust against attacks changing the coordinates within the tolerance range and against polygon simplification procedures.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning; Raptis, Georgios

Können diese Augen lügen

2003

Spektrum der Wissenschaft

Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der technischen Methodik der biometrischen Iriserkennung. Die Historie und Vorgehensweise des bekannten Daugman-Algorithmus werden erörtert.

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Weiss, Manfred [Hrsg.]; Busch, Christoph [Hrsg.]; Schröter, Welf [Hrsg.]

Multimedia-Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft

2003

Talheimer Verlag

Talheimer Sammlung kritisches Wissen, 44

3-89376-105-5

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Pinsdorf, Ulrich; Busch, Christoph

Neue Potenziale für mobile Dienstleistungen

2003

Multimedia-Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft

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Arnold, Michael; Busch, Christoph; Schmucker, Martin

Szenario-basierte Testverfahren zur Zertifizierung von Wasserzeichen

2003

Informatik 2003: Mit Sicherheit Informatik. Proceedings

Informatik 2003 - Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) <33, 2003, Frankfurt a.M., Germany>

Verschiedenste Algorithmen zum Markieren digitaler Daten wurden in den letzten Jahren veröffentlicht und entwickelt, um die Daten mit nicht wahrnehmbaren Kennzeichnern zu versehen. Unterschiede in den Algorithmen sind zum Teil nur marginal, oder sie unterscheiden sich in ihren Grundprinzipien. Eine objektive Bewertung existierender Algorithmen ist schwierig und kostenintensiv. Deshalb ist diese Bewertung sowohl für kommerzielle als auch für wissenschaftliche Organisationen nicht durchführbar. Dadurch wird die Analyse neuer Ansätze verzögert. Ein automatisches Testverfahren ist somit nicht nur hilfreich, sondern auch notwendig, um objektive Vergleiche und Analysen zu ermöglichen, die für die Verbesserung und die Neuentwicklung eine wichtige Grundlage darstellen. Wir beschreiben in diesem Beitrag die Unterschiede von Wasserzeichenalgorithmen und ihre Evaluierung am Beispiel verschiedener Angriffe. Desweiteren weisen wir auf die Notwendigkeit eines objektiven, nachvollziehbaren und allgemein anerkannten Testverfahrens1 hin. Aufgrund der Vielzahl existierender Algorithmen und Angriffe argumentieren wir für die Notwendigkeit eines szenario-basierten Ansatzes.

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Ng, Kia [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Nesi, Paolo [Ed.]

Third International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music. Proceedings

2003

IEEE Computer Society

International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music (Wedelmusic) <3, 2003, Leeds, United Kingdom>

0-7695-1935-0

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Busch, Christoph; Schmucker, Martin; Nesi, Paolo; Spinu, M.

Evolution fo Music Score Watermarking Algorithm

2002

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <4, 2002, San Jose, CA, USA>

Content protection for multimedia data is widely recognized especially for data types that are frequently distributed, sold or shared using the Internet. Particularly music industry dealing with audio files realized the necessity for content protection. Distribution of music sheets will face the same problems. Digital watermarking techniques provide a certain level of protection for these music sheets. But classical rasteroriented watermarking algorithms for images suffer several drawbacks when directly applied to imiage representations of music sheets. Therefore new solutions have been developed which are designed regarding the content od the music sheets. In Comparison to other media types the development for watermarking of music scores is a rather young art. The paper reviews the evolution of the early approaches and describes the current state of the art in the field.

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Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning

Frei von Zweifel?

2002

c't Magazin für Computertechnik

Vom simplen Zugriff auf den Rechner bis hin zur Zugangskontrolle in Hochsicherheitsbereichen soll zukünftig die Identität des anklopfenden Benutzers mit biometrischen Methoden verlässlich überprüft oder erkannt werden.

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Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

IT-Sicherheit - wie geht das?

2002

IT-Sicherheit für den Mittelstand

In diesem Kapitel werden die erforderlichen Maßnahmen und Voraussetzungen für die Erstellung einer IT-Sicherheitspolitik dargestellt, sowie die wesentlichen Elemente einer solchen Politik erläutert. Grundlage einer Sicherheitspolitik ist die Erfassung sämtlicher Güter, Werte, und Geschäftsprozesse, sowie die auf diese einwirkenden Bedrohungen und Gefährdungsmomente, die Risikoanalyse. Aufgrund der quantitativen Analyse können in einer Sicherheitspolitik dann technische und organisatorische Maßnahmen zur Beseitigung oder Begrenzung der Risiken getroffen werden. Weiterhin wird in diesem Kapitel der Lebenszyklus einer Sicherheitspolitik dargestellt.

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Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

Netzwerksicherheit

2002

Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

3-8274-1373-7

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Nesi, Paolo [Ed.]; Arnold, Michael [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]; Schmucker, Martin [Ed.]

Second International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music. Proceedings

2002

IEEE Computer Society

International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music (Wedelmusic) <2, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany>

0-7695-1623-8

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Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

Sensitivity Labels and Invisible Identification Markings in Human-Readable Output

2002

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <4, 2002, San Jose, CA, USA>

This paper presents a mechanism for embedding both immediately readable and steganographically hidden information in human-readable output, particularly in hard copy format. The mechanism is embedded within a domain inaccessible to unprivileged users in the operating system's Trusted Computing Base. A realization is presented which permits the embedding of such markings in arbitrary printing systems under the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems.

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Niu, Xiamu; Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph

Video Watermarking Resisting to Rotation, Scaling, and Translation

2002

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <4, 2002, San Jose, CA, USA>

A video watermarking with robustness against rotation, scaling and translation (RST) is proposed. The watermark information is embedded into pixels along the temporal axis within a Watermark Minimum Segment (WMS). Since the RST operations for every frame along the time axis in video sequence are the same at a very short interval, the watermark information can be detected from watermarked frames in each WMS subjected to RST. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is robust against the attacks of RST, bending and shearing of frames, MPEG-2 lossy compression, color-space conversion, and frame dropping attacks.

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Voigt, Michael; Busch, Christoph

Watermarking 2D-Vector Data for Geographical Information Systems

2002

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <4, 2002, San Jose, CA, USA>

This paper deals with the issue of watermarking 2D-vector data which are used in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The watermark is embedded in the tolerance range of the coordinates, where one bit of the watermarking information is represented by one PN-sequence, whose elements consist of the two values "+tolerance" and "-tolerance". To robustly embed one bit of the watermarking information the length of the PN- sequence has to be much greater than the square of the maximum coordinate value leading to non-acceptable sequence lengths due to high coordinate values. To achieve a PN-sequence length that is suitable to the size of the data domain we do not consider the whole coordinate value but only those decimal digit positions of the coordinate value, where changes are significant but not violating the tolerance requirements. Due to this restriction on a smaller range of values, overflow and underflow has to be considered during the embedding process. Within the retrieval process we first extract this fraction of the coordinate value before correlating it with the PN-sequence. The proposed method is robust against attackers changing the coordinates within the tolerance range.

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Busch, Christoph

Biometric Authentication for Access Control

2001

Sensors in Intelligent Buildings

The paper presents access control mechanismus that are based on biometric sensor. The security of such systems is analyzed. Special attention is given to statistical reliability of sensors and their resistance to attacks.

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Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Pant, Anoop

Digital Watermarking for the Protection of Music Scores

2001

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III

Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents <3, 2001, San Jose, CA, USA>

The need for protection mechanisms for multimedia content is widely recognized. In the past digital watermarking algorithms for images have been developed that provide a certain level of protection for colored or gray-scale images. Since classical raster-oriented watermarking algorithms do not satisfy the needs for symbol oriented music score images we present in this paper a solution that should give promising robustness of the watermark at minimal visibility impact. This solution respects the content of binary images and can be considered as a symbolic interpretation and modification of music scores. Some music symbols are used by changing their features for hiding an information string in a music score. The advantage is its robustness and invisibility. Regarding the invisibility a musician should under no circumstances be impeded in reading the music. One must even consider the fact of being influenced unconsciously. For example, it might be more difficult to concentrate on a music sheet if the symbols were changed invisibly. The most probable way of distributing music scores is the analog (paper) form. Music scores are copied and distributed. So watermarks should be readable even after multiple copy procedures. By choosing suitable features a blind detection of the watermark is possible.

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Nesi, Paolo [Ed.]; Bellini, Pierfrancesco [Ed.]; Busch, Christoph [Ed.]

First International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music. Proceedings

2001

IEEE Computer Society

International Conference on WEB Delivering of Music (Wedelmusic) <1, 2001, Florence, Italy>

0-7695-1284-4

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Busch, Christoph

Internet Security from Diverse Viewpoints

2001

Frontiers of Human-Centred Computing, Online Communities and Virtual Environments

The paper adress security needs and concerns, which are related to the use of the Internet in E-Commerce applications. It reviews recent developments in information technology and analyzes impacts on information providers as well as their intrinsic request for copyright protection. Form a diverse viewpoint these technologies are analyzed from and endusers position and impacts on fundamental privacy principles are identified. Thus crucial issues in latest trends of major vendors in the e-commerce area are observed. Form these statement principle guidelines are formulated, which might provide a helpful base for assessment of future technological developments.

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Busch, Christoph

IT Systems as a Target of Warfare

2001

XIII Amaldi Conference on Problems of Global Security. Proceedings 2000

International Amaldi Conference on Problems of Global Security <13, 2000, Roma, Italy>

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Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

Tracing Data Diffusion in Industrial Research with Robust Watermarking

2001

Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing. Proceedings 2001

IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP) <4, 2001, Cannes, France>

This paper presents a security system for enforcing security policies throughout distributed environments. The aspects of the system dealing with the protection of digital data using object labeling and mandatory encryption at the operating system level are described briefly; the main focus is on the protection afforded by the system in the analog domain. This is accomplished by embedding multiple digital watermarks identifying the copyright owner, the identity of the object, and of users accessing the object into any markable object accessed by users.

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Busch, Christoph; Graf, Frank; Wolthusen, Stephen; Zeidler, Armin

A System for Intellectual Property Protection

2000

4th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics. Proceedings

World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI) <4, 2000, Orlando, FL, USA>

An integrated system for the protection of data both on computers and in analog representation is presented. Based on the automatic and mandatory encryption of all data on storage media, authenticated encrypted com-munication channels , and digital watermarking technology, the system protects data from misappropriation while working as an extension to the operating system, making the security mechanisms fully transparent for legitimate users. Even analog representations of the data objects are still protected through the use of digital watermarking and can be traced back. An outline of the system architecture along with information on the pro-totype is given.

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Zwiesele, A.; Munde, A.; Busch, Christoph; Daum, Henning

BioIS Study

2000

34th ANNUAL International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology. Proceedings 2000

International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST) <34, 2000, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada>

On 1st April 1999, work on the a.m. BioIS Study commenced. This study was initiated by the Federal Criminal Investigation office of Germany (BKA) in close cooperation with the German Information Security Agency (BSI). The study includes a field investigation, in which 11 physiological (static) and behaviour-specific (dynamic) systems, which were available and supported in Germany, were installed and put into operation in a defined scenario. The field investigation was conducted with approximately 40 users representing different age, employment, educational and ethnic groups. The main objectives of the field investigation are as follows: 1.) To gather experience with the biometric systems and to identify any weaknesses that need to be examined in greater depth during the future course of the study. 2.) To obtain statistical information regarding the frequency with which authorised users are rejected by the various systems. 3.) To observe the behaviour of the users over a prolonged period of time, in order to establish whether or not any changes can be observed. 4.) Dupability: The aim of this part is to analyse and assess the effort that is neccessary to dupe biometric systems. 5.) Influence of the various programmable system parameters: This part attempts to investigate the repercussions of the various system setups for the identification attributes. 6.) Influence of the various environmental factors on the identification reliability of the systems.

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Busch, Christoph; Rademer, Ero; Schmucker, Martin; Wolthusen, Stephen

Concepts for a Watermarking Technique for Music Scores

2000

Visual 2000. Proceedings-CD-ROM

Conferencia Internacional en Cómputo Visual <3, 2000, Mexico City>

Today's quality of copying machines allows everyone to copy any kind of printed document without significant loss of quality. Copying of music scores represents a particular nuisance. At the same time web-based distribution of music scores in digital representations becomes widespread raising further issues with regard to intellectual property. Although copying music scores cannot be stopped, it is possible to trace such copies by hiding information in the music score itself using watermarking techniques. Two different concepts are presented here: The first regards a music score as an image and uses standard image watermarking techniques. The second is a symbolic approach. Here some music symbols are used by changing their features for hiding information in the music score. The advantage is its robustness and visibility. By choosing suitable features a blind detection of the watermark is possible.

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Daum, Henning; Busch, Christoph [Betreuer]

Methoden zur Erkennung von Manipulationen an graphischen Zugangsberechtigungsausweisen

2000

Darmstadt, TU, Diplomarbeit, 2000

Im Zeitalter des E-Commerce ist es bereits üblich, allerlei Waren über das Internet zu kaufen. Doch mit Eintrittskarten oder ähnlichen Wertmarken wird das Internet meist nur zur Kontaktaufnahme verwendet, der Versand erfolgt überwiegend auf dem Postweg. Der Grund hierfür ist offensichtlich: Die Karte als Berechtigung für eine Dienstleistung könnte vervielfältigt oder gefälscht werden. Als Sicherheit wird beim Internet-Verkauf deshalb ein zusätzliches, einmaliges, maschinenlesbares Merkmal auf die Karte gedruckt, das dann zusätzliche Schutzmechanismen wie digitale Signaturen enthält. In der Diplomarbeit "Methoden zur Erkennung von Manipulationen an graphischen Zugangsberechtigungsausweisen" wurden verschiedene Methoden entwickelt, die eine Möglichkeit bieten, Manipulationen an dem eigentlichen, menschenlesbaren Teil zu erkennen. Verschiedene Ansätze wurden dann in das vorhandene System Online-Ticket integriert. Zunächst erfolgte eine Analyse der verfügbaren Online-Ticket-Systeme und deren Funktionsweise. Anschließend wurde anhand eines Beispiel-Szenarios festgelegt, wann eine Erkennung notwendig sein kann: Die Überprüfung kann entweder kontrollierend an allen Karten durchgeführt werden oder erst im Fall eines Verdachtes. Natürlich gelten für beide Vorgehensweisen unterschiedliche Voraussetzungen. Für den kontrollierenden Ansatz fiel die Entscheidung auf die maschinelle Lesung von Schriften (Optical Character Recognition, OCR), ein entsprechender Demonstrator wurde entwickelt und die Vorgehensweise später auch in die Kontrollstation von Online-Ticket integriert. Für den Fall der Einzelüberprüfung bei Verdachtsfällen wurde Wert auf die Rechnerunabhängigkeit gelegt. Nach der Betrachtung einiger einfacher Schutzmechanismen erfolgte hier eine systematische Analyse der Visual Cryptography für die Zwecke der Erkennung von Manipulationen. Anschließend erfolgte die Entwicklung eines Demonstrators, der dann schließlich in die entgültige Implementierung in Online-Ticket mündete. Darüber hinaus wurde auch eine Methode zur Erkennung von versteckten Zusatzinformationen entwickelt, die auf der Postitionierung der Kartenelemente basiert.

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Arnold, Michael; Funk, Wolfgang; Busch, Christoph

Technische Schutzmaßnahmen multimedialer Daten

2000

Beiträge zum Urheberrecht VI. Internationales Urheberrecht, One stop-shopping, Kollektive Rechtevergabe für Online-Nutzungen, Technischer Schutz

Der Übergang von der analogen zur digitalen Welt weist eine Vielzahl positiver Änderungen auf, die andererseits potentielle Urheberrechtsverletzungen begünstigen. Darunter fällt etwa die unberechtigte Verteilung von Daten im Widerspruch zu den eingeräumten Nutzungsrechten. Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Grundproblematik und mögliche technische Massnahmen um die Urheberrechte an digitalen Daten abzusichern. Es werden die digitalen Wasserzeichen als eine neuartige Schutzmassnahme zur Markierung multimedialer Daten beschrieben. In diesem Zusammenhang werden zwei Anwendungsprojekte im Zusammenhang mit den digitalen Wasserzeichen dargestellt.

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Benedens, Oliver; Busch, Christoph

Towards Blind Detection of Robust Watermarks in Polygonal Models

2000

Computer Graphics Forum

Eurographics <21, 2000, Interlaken, Switzerland>

We describe a Digital Watermarking system dedicated for embedding watermarks into 3D polygonal models. The system consists of three watermarking algorithms, one named Vertex Flood Algorithm (VFA) suitable for embedding fragile public readable watermarks with high capacity and offering a way of model authentication, one realizing affine invariant watermarks, named Affine Invariant Embedding (AIE) and a third one, named Normal Bin Encoding (NBE) algorithm, realizing watermarks with robustness against more complex operations, most noticeably polygon reduction. The watermarks generated by these algorithms are stackable. We shortly discuss the implementation of the system, which is realized as a 3D Studio MAX plugin.

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Graf, Frank; Busch, Christoph; Wolthusen, Stephen

Courseware needs Security

1999

Advanced Research in Computers and Communications in Education

International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE) <7, 1999, Chiba, Japan>

To be able to fulfill future requirements for education and training, new learning scenarios with distributed, user-adaptive, on-demand, co-operative training environments to support time and space independent learning are needed. Imparting knowledge will become a valuable service and field of business since knowledge and continuous education are becoming a major contributing factor to economic success of any company. As a consequence, courseware and the right to access it will be a major object of trade. Since its stock of courseware is the capital of each training provider there is a considerable need to protect it from any misuse. This paper will discuss the security requirements special to the area of Computer Aided Learning (CAL). It will show how courseware can be protected from illicit use and distribution when using a security system, which allows throughout the existence of the data use control instead of access control restricted to the time of delivery.

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Busch, Christoph; Funk, Wolfgang; Wolthusen, Stephen

Digital Watermarking: From Concepts to Real-Time Video Applications

1999

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications

The authors developed a secure, robust watermarking algorithm and applied it in digital streaming MPEG-2 format video - the format of choice in the broadcast and video stock industry.

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Wolthusen, Stephen; Funk, Wolfgang [Betreuer]; Busch, Christoph [Betreuer]

Entwurf und Durchführung einer Evaluierung von Firewall-Systemen

1999

Darmstadt, TU, Diplomarbeit, 1999

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Busch, Christoph; Nahrstedt, Klara; Pitas, Ioannis

Image Security

1999

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications

Over the past decades, research in security has concentrated on the development of algorithms and protocols for encryption, authentication, and integrity of textual data or data with similar characteristics. despite tremendous advances in security-specifically, the development of asymmetric cryptographic protocols and the inception of strong symmeric ciphers-plenty of security problems still afflict systems. For example, hackers exploiting weaknesses in other systems and the use of inadequate (too short) cipher keys produce frequent news headlines about broken security systems.

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Busch, Christoph

Internet Security from diverse Viewpoints

1999

Research Frontiers in Virtual Environments and Human-Centered Computing

Joint European Commission & National Science Foundation Advanced Research Workshop <1, 1999, Bonas, France>

The paper adress security needs and concerns, which are related to the use of the Internet in E-Commerce applications. It reviews recent developments in information technology and analyzes impacts on information providers as well as their intrinsic request for copyright protection. Form a diverse viewpoint these technologies are analyzed from and endusers position and impacts on fundamental privacy principles are identified. Thus crucial issues in latest trends of major vendors in the e-commerce area are observed. Form these statement principle guidelines are formulated, which might provide a helpful base for assessment of future technological developments.

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Busch, Christoph; Roth, Volker; Meister, Ralph

Perspectives on Electronic Commerce with Mobile Agents

1999

XI Amaldi Conference on Problems of Global Security. Proceedings

International Amaldi Conference on Problems of Global Security <11, 1998, Moskow, Russia>

Electronic commerce is a driving force for IT. Mobile agents profit from this development, and offer substantial advantages for certain electronic commerce applications in return. Yet , a number of criteria should be applied to electronic commerce applications to assess which areas are best suited for mobile agents. A major requirement to build confidence in mobile agent technologie is the availability of adequate security mechanisms. Although much remains to de done in this area, a valuable set of mechanisms exist that are suitable to launch electronic commerce applications based on mobile agent technology.

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Busch, Christoph; Arnold, Michael; Funk, Wolfgang

Schutz von Urheberrechten durch digitale Wasserzeichen

1999

Geistiges Eigentum und Copyright im multimedialen Zeitalter. Positionen, Probleme, Perspektiven.

Der Beitrag adressiert technische Möglichkeiten zur Absicherung der Urheberrechte an multimedialen Daten.Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer Grundproblematik des Electronic Commerce: Es sind Massnahmen erforderlich, die den potentiellen Missbrauch von Daten aufdecken können. Darunter fällt beispielsweise die unberechtigte Verteilung von Daten, die im Widerspruch zu den eingeräumten Nutzungsrechten steht. Eine neuartige Schutzmassnahme ist die Markierung von multimedialen Daten durch digitale Wasserzeichen, die den technischen Nachweis der Urheberschaft ermöglichen. Die Markierung wird direkt in die Daten integriert und erfüllt die Anforderungen einer nicht wahrnehmbaren und dennoch robusten Kennzeichnung des Materials. Der Beitrag schildert Anwendungsprojekte aus den Bereichen "digitale Brokering-Architektur für den Vertrieb von Bildern" sowie den Einsatz von digitalen Wasserzeichen im Bereich des digitalen Fernsehens.

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Busch, Christoph; Hüttinger, Stephan; Krannig, Annette

Sicherheitstechnologie in der Telemedizin

1999

Informationsmanagement in der Medizin

Dem Artikel mit dem Thema "Sicherheit in der Telemedizin" werden vier Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Telemedizin vorangestellt, um die besondere Problematik der Sicherung von Daten im medizinischen Umfeld demonstrieren zu können. Anschließend werden Verfahren und Möglichkeiten der Sicherheitstechnologie beschrieben, mit denen die aufgezeigten Probleme gelöst werden können.

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Busch, Christoph; Dörner, Ralf; Freytag, Christian; Ziegler, Heike

Feature Based Recognition of Traffic Video Streams for Online Route Tracing

1998

Pathway to a Global Wireless Revolution. CD-ROM

Annual International Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) <48, 1998, Ottawa, Canada>

In this paper an approach is presented for the acquisition of route related data by means of recognizing vehicles that pass different survey points. This recognition approach essentially relies on vehicle license plate matrices that are provided by standard video cameras. A recognition pipeline is conceived where the main steps are a frame selection method, a segmentation technique for the localization of plate matrices, a feature extraction method and a recogniton process. The single steps are discussed in detail and recognition rates that have been achieved in a field trial are presented.

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Busch, Christoph; Dörner, Ralf; Freytag, Christian; Ziegler, Heike

VESUV - a Computer Vision System for Integrated Traffic Analysis

1998

Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Science, Systems and Technology (CISST 1998)

International Conference on Image Science, Systems and Technology (CISST) <1998, Las Vegas, NV, USA>

This paper describes the Computer Vision System VESUV as a video-based system for traffic analysis and control. Using standard video hardware the presented approach enables the rplacement of traditional traffic sensors such as inductive loops or radar sensors which deliver traffic data in terms of numbers, classification and velocity of passing vehicles or environmental conditions. VESUV focuses on the functional integration of all the formaer types of sensors into one: the camera. Furthermore, VESUV provides additional features for route tracing which is realized by connecting locally acquired data at central traffic control stations. VESUV was successfully tested in a field trial on a German highway. Existing conventional traffic analysis systems provided the reference data. The promising results demonstrate that online object tracing can be realized with a minimal amount of error. As the first of its kind, the introduced system provides route-tracing information for traffic control systems.

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Busch, Christoph; Debes, Eric

Wavelet Transform for Analyzing Fog Visibility

1998

IEEE Intelligent Systems & their Applications

The authors present a new technique for estimating the distance of visibility in fog conditions. Based on a psychovisual model and on contrast estimation with wavelet transform, their technique fared well when compared to a direct approach based on local contrast calculation.

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Bolte, R.; Lehmann, K.J.; Walz, M.; Busch, Christoph; Schinkmann, M.; Georgi, M.

An economic analysis of the new teleradiology system KAMEDIN

1997

Medicine on the SuperHighway

TeleMed. Medicine on the Superhighway <1997>

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Lehmann, K.J.; Walz, M.; Bolte, R.; Schinkmann, M.; Busch, Christoph; Georgi, M.

Einsatzmöglichkeiten des KAMEDIN-Teleradiologiesystems unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einer Wirtschaftlichkeitsanalyse

1997

Der Radiologe

Fragestellung: Eine weiterentwickelte Softwareversion des Teleradiologiesystems KAMEDIN wird in 3 Anwendungsszenarien evaluiert und einer Wirtschaftlikeitsanalyse unterzogen. Methodik: In die Break-even-Analyse wird eine klinkinterne Übertragung zu einer Workstation auf der anästhesistischen Intensivstation, eine externe Übertragung zu der Workstation einer 6 km entfernten radiologischen Außenstelle und eine externe Übertragung zu einem 22 km entfernten PC (Bereitschaftsdienst) einbezogen. Den Gesamtkosten (Investitionskosten, Support, ISDN-Gebühren, Personalkosten) wird die mögliche Reduktion der Patiententransporte, der Arztwegezeiten und der Filmkosten gegenübergestellt. Ergebnisse: In 2 der 3 Szenarien wird ein Break-even bei 1817 bzw 528 Telekonferenzen/Jahr erreicht, die Unterschiede zwischen den Szenarien werden vor allem durch die Höhe der entfallenden Transportkosten verursacht. Eine Verbesserung der Wirtschftlichkeit kann durch die Einbeziehung bereits bestehender Hardwarekapazitäten und einem reduzierten Supportumfang erzielt werden. Bei einer Kombination aller Einsparpotentiale kann der Break-even auf 167 bzw. 77 Telekonferenzen/Jahr abgesenkt werden. Schlußfolgerungen: Unter den geeigneten Rahmenbedingungen kann die Teleradiologie auch bei moderaten Einsatzfrequenzen kostensparend betrieben werden.

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Busch, Christoph; Gerfelder, Norbert; Hildebrand, Axel; Neumann, Luc; Seibert, Frank

Innovative Anwendungen einer Bewegtbildanalyse

1997

Thema Forschung

The analysis of image sequences in order to extract geometrical and motion information is a well known field in the area of computer vision. Especially in the fields of surveillance and quality assurance many different methods have been developed. The applied procedures can be classified in intensity and feature based methods. In addition a priori knowledge is incorporated quite often. The scope of different image analysis scenarios is shown, by describing a number of innovative applications in the field of medicine, traffic control, semi-automatically authoring especially to support interactive television, and a new videobased man-machine interface. Within a medical application a new technique to track deformable objects is introduced. In the field of traffic control, traffic data is catured for local and global traffic control. A semi automatically authoring builds the foundation for an efficient indexing, which shows great potential in the field of interactive digital television. The description of a video-based interaction shows another innovative scenario, which underlines the variety of image sequence analysis applications.

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Busch, Christoph

Inter-patient analysis of tomographic data

1997

Tenth IEEE Symposium on computer-based medical systems. Proceedings

IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS) <10, 1997, Maribor, Slovenia>

This paper considers the computer-based support for the localization of pathological tissue within tomographic data. The subject of the approach is the inter-patient analysis of brain tissue types such as tumor, CSF, white matter, grey matter, bone, fat tissue and background. The class tumor hereby represents the superset of pathological tissue. The analysis pipeline of the presented approach contains feature extraction classification, twostep texture analysis and morphological postprocessing. Furthermore the paper reports results, that have been reached on the different steps of the pipeline.

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Handels, Heinz; Busch, Christoph; Encarnação, José L.; Hahn, Christoph; Kühn, Volker; Miehe, Jens; Poeppl, S. I.; Rinast, E.; Rossmanith, Ch.; Seibert, Frank; Will, Andreas

KAMEDIN: a telemedicine system for computer supported cooperative work and remote image analysis in radiology

1997

Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine

The siftware systen JAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen) is a multimedia telemedicine system for exchange, cooperative diagnostics, and remote analysis of digital medical image data. It provides components for visualisation, processing, and sychronised audio-visual discussion of medical images. Techniques of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) synchronise user interactions during a teleconference. Vsisibility of both local and remote cursor on the conference workstations facilitates telepointing and reinforces the conference partner's telepresence. Audio communication during teleconferences is supported by an integrated audio component. Furthermore, brain tissue segmentation with artificaial neural networks can be performed on an external supercomputer as a remote image analysis procedure. KAMEDIN is designed as a low cost CSCW tool for ISDN based telecommunication. However it can be used on any TCP/IP supporting network. In a field test, KAMEDIN was installed in 15 clinics and medical departments to validate the systems' usability. The telemedicine system KAMEDIN has been developed, tested, and evaluated within a research project sponsored by German Telekom.

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Busch, Christoph; Encarnação, José L. [Advisor]; Groß, Markus [Advisor]

Neuartige Algorithmen zur rechnergestützten Segmentierung von Hirntumoren: Visual Computing in der Lokalisationsdiagnostik

1997

Shaker

Darmstadt, TU, Diss., 1997

3-8265-3045-4

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Bayer, Bruno; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]

Realisierung einer objekt-orientierten Bilddatenkompressionskomponente fuer ein telemedizinisches Konferenzsystem

1997

Gießen-Friedberg, FH, Diplomarbeit, 1997

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Busch, Christoph

Texture-based Segmentation for Automatic Surface Reconstruction

1997

Advanced Medical Image Processing. Proceedings 1997

Germany-Korea Joint Conference on Advanced Medical Image Processing <2, 1997, Darmstadt, Hamburg>

This paper reports a segmentation pipeline for automatic analysis of multi-modal tomographic images. It aims as a computer based support at the localization of pathological tissue such as brain tumors. The segmentation pipeline includes texture analysis, classification with Kohonen Feature Map and knowledge based morphological postprocessing. Furthermore the paper sketches a statistical investigation of different texture discrimination methods such as the wavelet transform. Segmentation results that have been reached with this pipeline are used for surface reconstruction and 3D-visualisation of pathological tissue.

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Bolte, R.; Lehmann, K.J.; Walz, M.; Busch, Christoph; Schinkmann, M.; Georgi, M.

The new teleradiology system KAMEDIN: concept and application in consideration of cost-benefit-analysis

1997

Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery '97. Proceedings

Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CAR) <11, 1997, Berlin>

In recent years, different concepts and systems of teleradiology applications have been realized. In general these systems are connected to local networks using ISDN. While the DICOM-3 protocol has become an accepted, uniform standard for radiological images and for radiological workstations, in teleradiology different protocols and image formats are still used. Conversion sometimes causes troubles and requests the possibility of communication between the different systems. On the other hand the cost-benefit-relation of a teleradiology system depends on the number of possible communication partners and on the realization of different aspects of data transfer with the same system (e.g. image transfer, teleconference with PC or workstation). The evaluation of economic efficiency of telemedical applications is effected by many factors. Besides the "hard cost factors", which can easily be assessed by monetary aspects (e.g. costs for hardware, software and transport), there also exist a lot of "soft factors". Their assessment is more difficult. The patient's convenience, improvement of communication between sites and fastening of diagnosis or treatment are some examples of th "soft factors". Thus calculation of "break-even" analysis is mainly based on the "hard cost factors". In our study a cost-benefit analysis of the new teleradiology system KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und rechnergestützte Medizinische Diagnostik auf innovativen Netzen der Deutschen Telekom) was performed. For transmission of CT examinations, three different scenarios were realized (communication with an intensive care unit within the hospital, with an external radiology department and wit a radiologist on duty outside the hospital). Break-even analysis was done for each of the different scenarios.

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Busch, Christoph

Wavelet based texture segmentation of multi-modal tomographic images

1997

Computers & Graphics

This paper presents a segmentation pipeline for computer-based automatic analysis of multimodal tomographic images. It is a computer based support for the localization of pathological tissues such as brain tumors. The segmentation pipeline of the presented approach includes texture analtsis, classification with a modified Kohonen Feature Map, a collection of classifiers and knowledge based morphological postprocessing. Furthermore this paper presents a statistical investigation that compares the wavelet transform to classical texture analysis methods. Patient data which was acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) is used for this investigation.

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Debes, Eric; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]; Hilberg, Wolfgang [Advisor]

Wavelettransformation zur Sichtweitenbestimmung in Nebelsituationen aus Videoframes eines integrierenden Verkehrsdatenerfassungssystems

1997

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1997

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Freytag, Christian; Kuehner, Heike [Advisor]; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]

Auswahl und Realisierungen von Algorithmen der digitalen Bildverarbeitung in einem videobasierten System im Anwendungskontext streckenbezogene Verkehrserfassung

1996

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1996

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Wombacher, Andreas; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]

Benutzerinteraktion und Wissensspeicherung in einem WorldWide Web-basierten System zur Diagnoseunterstützung

1996

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1996

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Steffen, Bernhard; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]

Entwicklung eines Systems zur Differentialdiagnose im WorldWideWeb

1996

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1996

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Busch, Christoph; Groß, Markus; Miehe, Jens; Hahn, Christoph; Putzar, H.; Handels, Heinz; Rinast, E.; Rösler, K.; Bernardes, Paulo; Nowacki, Steffen; Will, Andreas

KAMEDIN - Teleconferencing and Automatic Image Analysis for Medical Applications

1996

Modelling and Graphics in Science and Technology

Luso-German Computer Graphics Meeting <3, 1994, Coimbra, Portugal>

The importance of cooperative work is growing in some medical areas such as radiology. The development of more efficient methods for Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is necessary for the introduction of computer support techniques in medical applications. A realisation of CSCW-functions for the support of cooperative work in radiology is being developed in the cooperation project KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen). Radiological image data is kept locally in a workstation where it will be exchanged, processed and analysed by two remotely located medical experts using an ISDN connection. Artificial neural networks and high-level image processing procedures are used for classificationand 3D reconstruction of different tissues. Kohonen-feature-maps are used successfully for the classification task.

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Dörner, Ralf; Kühner, Heike [Betreuer]; Busch, Christoph [Betreuer]

Konzeption und Realisierung eines videobasierten Systems zur Objekterkennung und -verfolgung im Anwendungskontext streckenbezogener Verkehrserfassung

1996

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1996

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Busch, Christoph; Hebestreit, H.P.; Kühn, Volker; Seibert, Frank

Praktische Erfahrungen mit Teleradiologiesystemen

1996

Deutscher Multimedia Kongreß '96

Deutscher Multimedia Kongress <4, 1996, Leipzig>

Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt die Inhalte und Ziele des Telemedizin-Projektes KAMEDIN. Mit Schwerpunkt auf dem Anwendungsfeld Teleradiologie ermoeglicht es die Akquisition digitaler radiologischer Bilder zum Beispiel von der Computertomographie und der Kernspintomographie. Im Rahmen einer kooperativen Sitzung auf der Basis von Weitverkehrsnetzen der Deutschen Telekom koennen Online-Diskussionen ueber einen vorliegenden Behandlungsfall durchgefuehrt werden. Hiermit sind Szenarien von der Konsultation eines Radiologie-Kollegen zum Einholen von Expertenmeinungen bis hin zur schnellen Einbeziehung anderer medizinischer Fachdisziplinen moeglich. 15 beteiligte niedergelassene und Krankenhaus-Radiologen konnten sich in dem 1995 durchgefuehrten Feldversuch von der Leistungsfaehigkeit des Systems ueberzeugen und erst Erfahrungen sammeln, sowie einen Vergleich mit anderen Systemen ziehen. Daraus erwachsene Anregungen fuehrten bereits zu einer Optimierung von KAMEDIN.

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Wenzel, Gerhard; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]; Stork, André [Advisor]

Quantitative Bestimmung und Dokumentation pathologischer Hautveraenderungen mittels eines 3D-Laserscanners und Methoden der Bildverarbeitung

1996

Darmstadt, FH, Diplomarbeit, 1996

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Bolte, R.; Lehmann, K.J.; Walz, M.; Loose, R.; Luetgemeier, J.; Seibert, Frank; Busch, Christoph; Schinkmann, M.; Georgi, M.

Radiologisch-medizinische Desktop-Konferenzen - Klinische Evaluation des Teleradiologiesystems KAMEDIN im Routinebetrieb eines radiologischen Instituts

1996

Aktuelle Radiologie

KAMEDIN ist ein Teleradiologieprojekt der Deutschen Telekom, welches ueber ISDN-Verbindungen den Transfer, die Visualisierung und die Online-Praesentation digitaler radiologischer Bilddaten ermoeglicht. Im Rahmen eines Feldversuches wurde die Anwendbarkeit des KAMEDIN-Systems im klinischen Routinebetrieb getestet und eine Anpassung der Software an die radiologische bildgebung vorgenommen. In einem Zeitraum von sechs Monaten wurden ueber 50 Telekonferenzen mit durchschnittlich 36 CT-Bildern pro Patient uebertragen. Die Vorbereitungszeit pro Patient betrug im Mittel 10 Minuten, die Uebertragungszeit 2 Minuten, und die Konferenzzeit 8 Minuten. Auftretende Softwareprobleme wurden analysiert und Loesungsprobleme erarbeitet. KAMEDIN kann durch eine weitere Anpassung den Erfordernissen der Telekommunikation in einer rdiologischen Abteilung gerecht werden.

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Purschke, Tim; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]; Madeira, Joaquim [Advisor]

Cluster und Superpositionsanalyse von Multielektrodenableitungen im visuellen System der Saeugetiere

1995

Darmstadt, TH, Diplomarbeit, 1995

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Handels, Heinz; Hahn, Christoph; Miehe, Jens; Will, Andreas; Bernardes, Paulo; Busch, Christoph; Kühn, Volker; Rinast, E.; Putzar, H.; Rösler, K.

Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Image Analysis in Teleradiology

1995

Computer Assisted Radiology '95. Proceedings

Computer Assisted Radiology (CAR) <6, 1995, Berlin>

For ISDN based image exchange, consultative discussion, and image analysis in teleradiology the software system KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen) has been developed. during teleconferences user interactions for image processing etc. are synchronised and performed simultaneously on different workstations using functions of computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). For computer assisted diagnosis remote tissue segmentation and classification in intracranial MR data can be performed via ISDN with neutral network classifiers on an external supercomputer.

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Busch, Christoph; Schmerer, Martin

Ein Verfahren zur Texturanalyse basierend auf multiplen Waveletbasen

1995

Mustererkennung 1995

DAGM-Symposium Mustererkennung <17, 1995, Bielefeld>

Der Beitrag stellt ein Verfahren zur Texturanalyse vor, das auf der Wavelettransformation (WT) basiert. Die WT, deren praegnanteste Eigenschaft ihre gute Lokalisation im Orts- und im Frequenzbereich ist, stellt in Form einer Merkmalextraktion den entscheidenden ersten Schritt innerhalb der Texturanalyse dar. Im Unterschied zu klassischen Verfahren der Texturanalyse werden die Ausgangsbilder dabei einer glabalen WT, d.h. einer Anwendung auf das gesamte Bild, unterzogen. Ziel der Arbeit ist eine generalisierende Klassifikation von Brodatztexturen. Dieses Ziel wird durch das vorgeschlagene Verfahren erreicht, indem die Klassifikationsresultate, die durch Anwendung unterschiedlicher Basiswavelets erzielt werden, miteinander verkneupft und abschliessend einer morphologischen Nachbearbeitung unterzogen werden.

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Rinast, E.; Bernardes, Paulo; Busch, Christoph; Kühn, Volker; Miehe, Jens; Will, Andreas; Putzar, H.; Rösler, K.; Hahn, Christoph; Handels, Heinz

ISDN Based Teleradiology and Image Analysis with the Software System KAMEDIN

1995

Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Medical Informatics

World Congress on Medical Informatics <8, 1995, Vancouver, BC, Canada>

This contribution describes the software system KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen) that is designed as an ISDN based computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) tool for usage in medical diagnostics. Medical image data from various sources (for example CT nd MR) can be interchanged and analyzed in bilateral teleconferences via ISDN. During a cooperative session user interactions for image processing etc. are synchronized and performed on both workstations. Features like telepointing, remote control, and audio connection enhance communication quality. With ISDN as transmission line widespread availability and low communication costs are achieved. Further, automatic tissue labeling in intracranial MR data can be invoked. For this purpose artificial neural network classifiers such as multilayer perceptron and Kohonen feature map are integrated. Classification results can be viewed as 3D-reconstructions.

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Steffen, Bernhard; Busch, Christoph [Advisor]

Konturbasierte Segmentierung medizinischer Bilddaten

1995

Darmstadt, TH, Studienarbeit, 1995

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Busch, Christoph; Eberle, Michael

Morphological Operations for Color-Coded Images

1995

Computer Graphics Forum

Eurographics <15, 1994, Oslo, Norway>

The subject of this paper ist the semantically based postprocessing of color-coded images such as classification results. We outline why the classical definition of mathematical morphology suffers is used for processing of coded image data. Therefore we provide an extension for morphological operations such as dilation, erosion, opening, and closing. With a new understanding of morphology we introduce bridging and tunneling as further combinations of dilation and erosion. The extensions are applied to medical image data, where the semantics rules stem from basic anatomical knowledge.

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Groß, Markus; Busch, Christoph; Encarnação, José L.

Einsatz von Methoden der Graphischen Datenverarbeitung in der Medizin

1994

DAMEDICA. Medizin in Darmstadt - eine Spurensuche

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Willett, Daniel; Busch, Christoph; Seibert, Frank

Fast Image Analysis Using Kohonen Maps

1994

Neural Networks for Signal Processing. Proceedings

IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal Processing <1994, Ermioni, Greece>

The following paper considers image analysis with Kohonen Feature Maps. These types of neural networks have proven their usefulness for pattern recognition in the field of signal processing in various applications. The paper reviews a clasification approach, used in medical applications, in order to segment anatomical objects such as brain tumors from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The same approach can be used for environmental purposes, to derive land-use classifications from satellite image data. These applications require tremendous processing time when pixel-oriented approaches are chosen. Therefore the paper describes implementation aspects which result in a stunning speed-up for classification purposes. Most of them are based on geometric relations in the feature-space. The proposed modifications were tested on the mentioned applications. Impressive speed-up times could be reached independent of specific hardware.

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Busch, Christoph; Groß, Markus; Miehe, Jens; Hahn, Christoph; Putzar, H.; Handels, Heinz; Rinast, E.; Rösler, K.; Bernardes, Paulo; Nowacki, Steffen; Will, Andreas

KAMEDIN - Teleconferencing and Automatic Image Analysis for Medical Applications

1994

Graphics and Modelling in Science & Technology. Proceedings

Luso-German Computer Graphics Meeting <3, 1994, Coimbra, Portugal>

The importance of cooperative work is growing in some medical areas such as radiology. The development of more efficient methods for Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) is necessary for the introduction of computer support techniques in medical applications. A realisation of CSCW-functions for the support of cooperative work in radiology is being developed in the cooperation project KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen). Radiological image data is kept locally in a workstation where it will be exchanged, processed and analysed by two remotely located medical experts using an ISDN connection. Artificial neural networks and high-level image processing procedures are used for classificationand 3D reconstruction of different tissues. Kohonen-feature-maps are used successfully for the classification task.

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Rinast, E.; Busch, Christoph; Groß, Markus; Miehe, Jens; Will, Andreas; Rösler, K.; Putzar, H.; Nowacki, Steffen; Hahn, Christoph; Handels, Heinz

Telekonferenzen ueber ISDN mit dem Softwaresystem KAMEDIN

1994

Digitale Bildverarbeitung in der Medizin '94. Proceedings

Workshop Digitale Bildverarbeitung in der Medizin <1994, Freiburg>

Im Zuge der bestaendig fortschreitenden Entwicklungen in der Medizin werden neue Arbeits- und Kooperationsformen zusehends wichtiger: Zum einen zieht die zunehmende Spezialisierung einen hohen Kommunikationsbedarf nach sich, um das gesteigerte Wissen in breitgefaecherten Disziplinen auch einer umfassenden und sorgfaeltigen Patientenbehandlung zugute kommen zu lassen. Grosse Bedeutung kommt hierbei bildgebenden Verfahren in der Radiologie zu. Zum anderen befinden sich moderne Untersuchungsgeraete, die meist einem ihrem technischen Niveau entsprechenden hohen Preis haben, immer oefter zentralisiert in grossen Kliniken oder Praxen. Untersuchungsergebnisse muessen dann weitergeleitet und idealerweise auch besprochen werden. Ansaetze des computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) beschaeftigen sich intensiv mit dieser Problematik. Der allgemeinen Verfuegbarkeit und der relativ geringen Kosten wegen bietet sich als Kommunikationsmedium ISDN an. In diesem Kontext ist das Kooperationsprojekt KAMEDIN (Kooperatives Arbeiten und MEdizinische Diagnostik auf Innovativen Netzen) entstanden, finanziell gefoerdert durch die Deutsche Telekom und der Hewlett Packard GmbH. KAMEDIN ist ein fuer UNIX-Workstations konzpiertes Programmpaket, das ueber das Standard-ISDN-Netz der Deutschen Telekom kooperatives Arbeiten auf der Grundlage radiologischen Bilddatenmaterials ermoeglicht. Bilddaten koennen ausgetauscht und anschliessend im Rahmen einer kooperativen Diagnosesitzung besprochen oder einer automatischen Klassifikation durch kuenstliche neuronale Netze zugefuerht werden.

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Busch, Christoph; Groß, Markus

Interactive Neural Network Texture Analysis and Visualization for Surface Reconstruction in Medical Imaging

1993

Computer Graphics Forum

Eurographics <14, 1993, Barcelona, Spain>

The following paper describes a new approach for the automatic segmentation and tissue classification of anatomical objects such as brain tumors from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets using artificial neural networks. These segmentations serve as an input for 3D-reconstruction algorithms. Since MR images require a careful interpretation of the underlying physics and parameters, we first give the reader a tutorial style introduction to the physical basics of MR technology. Secondly, we describe our approach that is based on a two-pass method including non-supervised cluster analysis, dimensionality reduction and visualization of the texture features by means of nonlinear topographic mappings. An additional classification of the MR data set can be obtained using a post-processing technique to approximate the Bayes decision boundaries. Interactions between the user and the network allow an optimization of the results. For fast 3D-reconstructions, we use a modified marching cubes algorithm but our scheme can easily serve as a preprocessor for any kind of volume renderer. The applications we present in our paper aim at the automatic extraction and fast reconstruction of brain tumors for surgery and therapy planing. We use the neural networks on pathological data sets and show how the method generalizes to physically comparable data sets.